10 Psy 101
Card Set Information
10 Psy 101
Notes from class and pages 221-248
The ability to stores and retrieve information over time
The process of transforming what we perceive, think or feel into an enduring memory
The process of maintaining information in memory over tiem
The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
How is making a memory like following a recipe?
Its combining info we already have with the new info. It starts off with a recipe and begins to improvise. The memories are constructed
The process of relating new info in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memory
Visual imagery encoding
The process of storing new info by converting it into mental pictures
The process of categorizing info according to the relationships among a series of items
Which is most effective, semantic, rhyme, or visual judgment and why?
Semantic because it relates to information already stored in the brain
How does visual encoding influence memory?
It does the same thing as semantic encoding does (draw info the brain has already stored)
It creates a verbal and visual placeholder
Why might mentally organizing the material for an exam enhance your retrieval of that material?
Because the categories create a reminder of the things you need to memorize
Semantic encoding, visual imagery encoding and organizational encoding all
Increase memory, but they use different parts of the brain to accomplish that
Encoding is the process of
Transforming the info our senses take in into lasting memory
Most instances of spectacular memory performance
Reflect the skillful use of encoding strategies rather than so called photographic memory.
Memory is influenced by
The type of encoding we perform regardless of whether we consciously intend to remember an event or not
A particularly effective method for increasing subsequent recall is
Encoding info with respect to its survival value
Perhaps because our memory systems have evolved in a way that allows us to remember especially well info that is relevant to our survival
A type of storage that holds sensory info for a few seconds or less
A fast decaying store of visual info
A fast decaying store of auditory info
A type of storage that holds nonsensory info for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
The process of keeping info in short term memory by mentally repeating it
Combining small pieces of info into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short term memory
Active maintenance of info in short term storage
How long is info held in iconic and Echoic memory before it decays?
Iconic memories decay in about one second
Echoic memories decay in about 5 seconds
Why is it helpful to repeat a telephone number you're trying to remember?
Because rehearsal keeps the information in short term memory for another 15-20 seconds
Long term memory
A type of storage that holds info for hours, days, weeks or years
The inability to transfer new info from the short term store into the long term store
The inability to retrieve info that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or surgery
The process by which memories become stable in the brain
Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them toe become consolidated again
Long term potentiation (LTP)
A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens that connection making further communication easier
How does building a memory produce a physical change in the nervous system?
It strengthens the communication across the synapse between the neurons
When is a consolidated memory vulnerable to disruption
Every time a memory is retrieved it is vulnerable to disruption
External information that is associated with stored info and helps bring it to mind
Encoding specificity principle
The idea that retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps recreate the specific way in which info was initially encoded
The tendency for info to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situation match
There are several types of memory storage
: Info for a second or two
Short term or working memory
: retains info for 15-20 seconds
Long term memory
: Stores info anywhere from minutes to years or decades
Memory storage depends on changes in
Synapses and long term potentiation (LTP) increases synaptic connections
Retrieval induced forgetting
A process where retrieving an item from long term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items
Should students spend more time testing themselves on material (retrieval) or studying it over and over?
How can retrieval induced forgetting occur during conversations?
A speaker talks about select parts of a memory and neglects other aspects.
How is brain activity different when trying to recall vs successfully recalling?
Successful recalling shows activity in the hippocampal region
Trying to recall causes the left frontal lobe to show heightened activity
Whether we remember a past experience depends on
Whether retrieval cues are available to trigger recall.
Retrieval cues are effective when
They are given in the same context as when we encoded an experience. Moods and inner states can also serve as retrieval cues
Retrieving info from memory has
Consequences for later retrieval. Retrieval improves subsequent memory of the retrieved info, as exemplified by the beneficial effect of testing on later recall
Retrieval can impair
Subsequent remembering of related info that is not retrieved. It can also change subsequent remembering when new info is associated with vivid recollections
Retrieval can be separated into
The effort we make while trying to remember what happened in the past and the successful recovery of store info.
The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
The influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection
The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things
An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus
What type of memory is it when you just know how to do something?
How does priming make memory more efficient?
Its an implicit thing that makes it easier to access the stored memories
A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
What form of memory uses mental time travel?
How does episodic memory help us imagine out futures?
It is a flexible system that allows us to recombine elements of past experience in new ways so that we can mentally try out different versions of what might happen
Why does a collaborative group typically recall fewer items than a nominal group?
People are more prone to social loafing
More likely The retrieval methods used by others throws people off.
People who have amnesia are
Able to taint implicit memory, including procedural memory and priming, but they lack explicit memory
Episodic memory is the collection of
Personal experiences from a particular time and place; it allows us both to recollect the past and imagine the future
Semantic memory is a
Networked, general, impersonal knowledge of facts, associations and concepts
Collaborative memory refers to
Remembering in groups. It can impair and enhance memory by exposing people to new info and helping to correct errors
Long term memory consists of several different forms
: The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
: Unconscious influences of past experiences on later behavior and performance like procedural memory and priming
: Involves acquisition of skills as a result of practice
: A change in the ability to recognize or identify an object or word as the result of past exposure