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2015-10-22 09:23:29

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  1. How has geographic and climatic diversity in China influenced the regional subsistence culture?
    • 6 mill sq miles
    • almost size as US
    • very diverse landscape and climate
    • Central, Eastern, and southeastern areas are relatively moist and more suited for agriculture.
    • Particularly rice agriculture is seen in this area because of the climate and because it achieve high yields to feed a large amount of people.
    • Northern and Western China is fairly dry with their landscape consisting of mostly steppes and plateau.
    • Han people are not attracted to this area because its not suitable for agriculture.
    • Mongal empire practiced pastoralism in this area.
    • Southwestern area is mountainous and rice agriculture could flourish here.
    • Therefore horticulture was the best adoption for this region because it was not intense and did not require irrigation system.
  2. How did the Han population successfully spread over China during the 1st century? What kinds of evidence have been identified that support this spread throughout the region?
    • Large-scale migration of Han happened from northern to southern China around 1st century b.c.
    • Han basically divided into 2 – Northern Han and Southern Han.
    • Recently, geneticist looked at DNA between southern and northern Han looking at Y chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA.
    • Essentially, Y chromosome is exhibited only in males. Mitochondrial DNA on the other hand is exhibited in both males and females, but only females are able to pass this trait on to the next generation.
    • So what they found was that northern and southern Han share the same y chromosome, but MtDNA is different.
    • Therefore northern male Hans most likely migrated to the south.
  3. what is the history and recent policies of the People’s Republic of China
    • People Republic of China officially established in 1949.
    • Mao Zendong and Chinese Communist Party (CCP) led the country
    • leaders committed to restoring and strengthiening the economy
    • they wanted a proletarian socailist state
    • switched from private to public ownership

    • land reform:
    • replaced coopertivization with collectivism

    • mao implemented a 5 year plan model to strengthen economy
    • it stressed for heavy industry
    • collectivation of agriculture happened - mutual aid teams (small peasants pool land together about 10 families), replaced by elementary agriculture producers (2-3 mutual aid teams formed elementary cooperatives), and then combined with advanced agricultural producers (larger and peasants forfeited all land claims)
    • 5 year plan successful - people satisfied, but it widened gap between urban and rural

    • The great leap forward established
    • aimed for socialism
    • wanted rural areas to be self sufficent
    • established backyard steel furnace in hopes to surpass britain and US
    • millions died bc of starvation

    • mao power in question and so he resigned
    • tempo changed and workers now able to earn extra work points
    • private crops can be sold in free market

    • mao wanted regain his power during cultural revoluton
    • he mobilized urban student youth as red guards
    • they would attack intellectuals and four olds (custom, culture, ideas, habits)
    • when mao died concepts of cultural revolution continued

    • economic reform then began
    • deng Xiaoping became leader and allocated 4 modernizations (agriculture, industry, military, sceince/technology)
    • deng inroduced household responsibility system and decollectiviatiotn of agriculture
    • people gave small amount of good to government and was able to keep the rest
    • private land now leased and families can be entrepreneurs

    • Tiannenmen Square protest
    • mainly students protested for greater freedom of speech, end of corruption and favortism, and greater say in government
    • Today, relaxation of hokou
    • 2001 china joined WTO
    • 2011 became 2nd largest economy
    • 2012 - urban surpassed rural population
  4. What are some features of traditional families (clans and lineages) in China?
    • Patrilineal and Patrilocal
    • Sons essential to continue family line
    • If no male offspring, they adopt one with same family name Nephew
    • Hierarchical
    • by age and gender
    • Parents over children
    • Men over women
    • Bofu – uncle 1st son is more senior than others and so on Corporate family
    • Defined membership boundaries; clear who belongs to your family and who does not
    • There is a Head of the family with rights and duties to provide for the family
    • Family is social institution can be maintained forever lineage goes on, but members can change
  5. How are families formed and maintained historically?
    • Shang Dynasty (1600-1046bc)
    • Lineage formation
    • Zhou dynasty (1122-248BC)
    • Strict primogeniture among nobility Primogeniture: Inheritance goes to the 1st born because it keeps lineage and property in tact
    • Laws were established in 4th BC because some elite people got threatened by some families which were gaining increased power
    • Primogeniture allowed keeping property in tact and made the family grow bigger and bigger
    • Double done taxing if  household has 2 or more adult sons living together with you Means that sons had to be divided and one had to establish their own household because you don’t want to have to pay more taxes
    • But you still had to divide son with some goods
    • Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD) Inheritance should be equal between sons (no longer primogeniture)
    • Confucianism appeared during this time Helped to shape family interaction
    • Critical to social structures and control
  6. What are some of the marriage rules or preferences for traditional families?
    • is Economic, political, and social
    • happens between 2 families
    • individual feelings suppressed
    • Often descent is exogamous (different family name, marriage allowed outside group)
    • Household made up of extended family up to 2nd cousin
    • Multiple Extended family make up -> lineage
    • multiple lineage make up -> clan
    • All clan members claim relation
  7. How have Chinese families changed and/or unchanged since 1949, and what are some contributing factors to these changes?
    • Before communism, most social activities, power, and authority based on seniority and gender
    • Under Communism - familism regarded as obstacle bc it  promotes thinking about the family as more important rather than the state
    • Familism is considered a legacy of feudalism
    • Family law established that Stood against patriarchy and Stood up for women’s liberation
    • Collevtive farming Reduced idea that family is a production center. INstead Each individual belongs to a production team Production team
    • this weakened power base of parents over children
    • Patrilocal and patrilineal structure still continued
    • Since ecoomic reform - Young people learning new skills and New opportunities appeared that favored younger people 
    • Relaxation of class registration
    • Conjugal ties changed, # of children Parent/child relationships not as important as husband/wife
  8. brief history of Japan:
    5 eras
    • Era name changes whenever emperor changes
    • Tokugawa period (1603-1868) Feudal period
    • Locking the country (Sakoku) - Not opening the doors to foreign interaction
    • Only let in Dutch, Portuguese and china
    • Was able to establish own unique culture because of lack of outside influence
    • Meiji (1868 – 1912)
    • Modernization and industrialization period
    • Taisho
    • Short period (1912 – 1926)
    • Showa 1926 – 1989
    • WWII happened here
    • Heisei Jan 1989 – present
    • Japan still in this era
  9. Japan brief history
    Tokugawa system and culture
    • Capital relocted to Tokyo
    • 4 castes and others (influenced by Confucianism )
    • 1. Samurai
    • 2. Farmers - Relatively high status bc they make food for society. Suffered the most in paying tax and living condition
    • 3. Craft-workers
    • 4. Merchants - towards the end of the tokugawa period merchants surpassed   samurai period
    • other:
    • Outcasts: Performers, Geishas
    • Above the Caste: Emperor above shogun; But Shogun had the power
    • stable society
    • no war happening
    • Urban culture developed
    • Kabuki (dance drama)
    • haiku (poetry)
    • In 1853 American naval ship came led by Commodore Perry Told japan to open the door to the rest of the country
    • 1854 trade treaty created the opening of japan happened
    • Japanese not allowed to go outside, but foreigners can come in
  10. jaan brieif history
    • Shogunate collapsed
    • New government was restoring status and role of emperor
    • Dismantled caste system
    • Made everyone have a national identity
    • Modern nation building began
    • japanese allowed to go outside japan now
    • Were being sent to foreign countries to be schooled in different areas to bring back knowledge to japan
    • Was very Successful and made japan cocky and get into imperialism
    • successful to spread their influence 
    • china japan war
    • Russia japan war
    • Japan won both
    • Greater East Asia co-prosperity sphere announced in 1940 Pearl harbor happened in 1941, the japan government thought they could make it again, but didn’t Firebombing of Tokyo and Osaka Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    • Japan Surrendered in WW2 in 1945
    • Then, occupied by American forces
  11. What are some features of traditional Japanese family, ie?
    • Ie means family
    • Patriarchal head
    • usually senior man
    • Transferred through primogeniture (firstborn son) If no son, but have daughter – then daughter will stay and family will find someone to marry daughter and change his name. 
    • Patrilocal and neolocal practices done:
    • First son takes over house
    • 2nd or 3rd sons start own family with wife
    • Practice of burial Each family has their own graveyard If you are a member of that family you must go there
    • Family burial follows primogeniture model and is heriarchical too
    • Part of groupism model  
    • NOw:
    • No official patriarchal law because of gender equality
    • Property now split evenly between children
    • Primogeniture doesn’t really happen much anymore unless family is very proud of their history
    • Patrilocal still happens but now
    • mostly senior people will live with their children and most likely to live with daughter
    • Funeral area more communal, don’t really have family tomb anymore
  12. How does Chie Nakane describe and explain human relationships in Japanese culture? How do the Japanese cultural emphases on honor and harmony reflect their behavior? How Japanese “face” (mentsu) may be preserved and what are some of the characteristics of that?
    She says that human relationships are based on frame rather than attribute
  13. Nakane
    Frame vs. attribute
    • Frame -  Group you belong to
    • Ex. Family, PLU, Toshiba
    • Identity and status more emphasized
    • Attribute - Is your qualification; your job/profession. Ex. Professor, engineer
    • Frame, where you belong more important than attribute, your qualification, in Japan so it doesn’t matter what you actually are.  Japanese more likely to describe themselves in terms of their frame
    • Uchi vs. Soto (Insider vs. Outsider) Demarcation between insider and outsider is important If im talking about my family all of them is insider everyone else is outsider. Are you with us or not!
  14. nakane's
    heirarchical order
    dont bypass intermediary
  15. Nakane's honor and harmony
    • Honor and harmony emphasized
    • Try not to disgrace other peoples honor or reputation
    • Avoid open confrontation
    • Tatemae vs. Honne
    • Tatemae: What is said
    • Needed for harmonious relations and group solidarity
    • Honne: what is really intended
    • But really try to understand Real intention
    • Used in informal settings
  16. Nakane's
    Why is Tatemae and Honne important
    • Preserve Mentsu (face)
    • Important to save your own face and others
    • more important to save other’s face
    • Give compliments and appreciation to other people to maintain others face
    • 2 types of face Positive face – your face is saved and maintained Negative face Based on your own action not others Freedom of action Being interrupted and criticized
    • Putting oneself and family down is ok to save other peoples face Put your child down when another person does too
    • Collective face or “frame” of the group should also be maintained
  17. Suji
    • herirachical face
    • Suji – “the proper way” - “things should be done with respect and courtesy”
  18. How do Japanese human relationships and cultural emphases discussed in class relate to other Japanese cultural features, such as the family and ways in which business is carried out?
    • Hosts sit closest to the door in order to get the door
    • Seating – is by rank
    • Conversation – is formal and face saving
    • Always use rectangular conference table with middle demarcation
    • At conclusion: everyone stands, bows, let guests leave first
    • H3 leads guests to the elevator to show courtesy
    • H3 will get into the elevator and stand closest to the panel G1 will stand to furthest right hand corner of the elevator
  19. business going out to dinner
    • Same insider/outsider demarcation
    • Purpose is to build relationship between hosts and guests
    • Conversation Relaxed to put everyone at ease
    • Don’t criticize anything you aren’t apart of. Ex. Japanese health care system critique by british
    • reciprocal; about same ranking people must be there
    • If you are a foreigner The answer has to be yes to type of food offered
    • Type of restaurant is important Showing off is not good
    • Selection should be careful and dependent on guests status
    • Last minute change on guests is very taboo
  20. business
    going out to bar
    • Power and social distance is broken down
    • Feeling of “oneness” no more insider/outsider feeling
    • Acceptable to say what is on your mind
    • Whatever is said is not held against the person after leaving the bar
    • Go out to karaoke bar
    • Opportunity to release honne opinions
    • Business is still not done
  21. japanes Large Corporation Scheme
    • Corporationism Tries to reward employees to gain total devotion
    • Employees are tied to company
    • salary by length of service
    • welfare and benefits provided
    • in house loans
    • socialization important
    • no cubicles
    • Chorei - morning meetings
    • evaluation based on ability

    • 1. jitsuryoku - ability obvious
    • 2. soshitsu - ability hidden
    • 3. noryoku - general ability

    • Some recent changes in large corporate scheme
    • More performance-based salary instead of length of service
    • Job change more common
    • Individualism is more popular Young people don’t want to go out with boss anymore
  22. Be familiar with the brief history of Korea since 1800, as discussed in class.
    How were the two republics Korean peninsula formed as an outgrowth of the Second World War and the Korean War?
    • 3 countries intersted in koea
    • china japan and russia
    • Sino-Japanese War between Chinese and Japanese - japanese won; china no longer protector; korea try to act neutral
    • Russo- Japanese War between russia and japan - japan won
    • Japan and US agreement - US take control of phillipine and japan dont interfere
    • Korea under japanese protectorate
    • japan established base in NK
    • japan control lasted until end of WWII in 1945
    • A week before war ended russia declared war against japan
    • a month later US came to help
    • negotiated on 38th parallel a demarcation between NK and SK
    • Republic of korea established in 1948
    • Korean War - continuous clashing between troops was a cease fire but no treaty
  23. How have the demographic characteristics and socio-economic conditions differed between South Korea and North Korea over the past 70 years? What contributed to the difference?
    • massive migration movement between north and south after war
    • South Korea -
    • densly populated
    • unemployment problem
    • soldiers
    • baby boom
    • Did rapid industrialization to reduce unemployment
    • became successful bc of governments tight control over labor conditions
    • imporved supply of food, health, education
    • government supported big business
    • 1997 financial crisis
    • 2001 worked toward recovery
    • North Korea
    • Lower population
    • also labor shortage
    • Chonrima movement established - Similar to great leap forward; Aims to enhance economic production
    • Wanted to industrialize but had labor shortage
    • Due to labor shortage they started mechanization of agriculture
    • They accepted ethnic Korean residents living in japan and their relatives to migrate to north
    • intention is to have more labor
    • promoted high fertility
    • then, rapid population growth led to economic success, but did not last long because the aide from soviet union ran out
    • since the 90’s chronic food shortages led some north Koreans to go to china
  24. How were three types of religion, Buddhism, Catholicism, and Protestantism, introduced and developed (or suppressed) historically in Korea? How are religions accepted and treated differently in North Korea and South Korea?
    • Buddhism came first under goryeo dynasty
    • temples subsidized; monks and nuns dont pay taxes
    • at some point economic crisis happened
    • Joseon dynasty suppressed buddhism
    • promoted neoconfucianism
    • forced monks and nins to live in maountain
    • reduced rituals and temples
    • Buddhism began to be accepted again after monks created an army to drive japanese troops out
    • catholocism introduced but became outlawed
    • protetantism then established by korean merchants
    • protestant missioanry tried to evangelize, and identify christianity with modernization
    • during japanese colonial time chrisitanity was suppressed and forced to change to japanese buddhism way
  25. religion in South Korea
    • Protestantism more popular than Catholicism bc of american influence and less history of suppression
    • catholics also gain more ground by conducted mass in korean and having korean relihious leaders
    • buddhism suffered bc of assocaition with japan
  26. religion in North Korea
    • Public religion discouraged, not banned
    • constitution guaranteed freedom of religious belief
    • however religion cannot be used to bring foreign powers into NK
    • Religion cannot be used to disturb state and social order
    • shamanism and chondoism influential