Grade 11 I.B. Chemistry Test 2 (Chapter 4)
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VSEPR theory stands for...
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
Electron pairs found in the valence shell of an atom repel each other, and thus...
Position themselves as far apart as possible
Repulsion occurs between all electron pairs, bonded and unbonded, but _____ repel more
Unbonded electron pairs
VSEPR theory treats double and single bonds as...
A single charge center (electron domain)
The geometrical arrangement of electrons is determined by...
The number of charge centers around the central atom
The shape of the molecule is determined by...
The bonded atoms
Repulsion decreases in the following order:
- Lone Pair-Lone Pair
- Lone Pair-Bonded Pair
- Bonded Pair-Bonded Pair
The definition of a Polar Molecule is...
A molecule that has a polar bond and net movement of electrons to one end of the molecule
Intramolecular force is...
The attractive forces within molecules and compounds
Intramolecular forces affect...
- Physical Properties
Intermolecular force is...
The attractive forces between molecules
The strength of intermolecular forces determine the following physical properties of molecular compounds:
- Physical state
- Melting point
- Boiling point
- Surface tension
- Hardness and texture
- Solubility in various solvents
- Enthalpy of vaporization
As intermolecular forces increase...
The compounds melting point, boiling point and surface tension also increase
Van der Waals forces are...
The weak forces of attraction between molecules, including dipole-dipole and London dispersion forces
London dispersion force is...
A weak attractive force acting between all entities caused by the temporary imbalance of electrons. The temporary shift in the electron cloud causes temporary dipole
Magnitude of London dispersion force is affected by:
- Number of electrons
- Size of electron cloud
- Molecular shape
In a molecule, more surface contact results in...
A higher boiling point
Higher amounts of electrons results in....
Increasesd distance to nucleus, reduced attraction of valence electrons to nucleus, electron cloud can polarize more easily
The definition of a dipole-dipole force is...
A relativly strong intermolecular force of attraction between a slightly positive end of one polar molecule and a slightly negative end of an adjascent polar molecule
The definition of a hydrogen bond is...
An unusually strong dipole-dipole force between a hydrogen atom attached to a highly electronegative and a highly electronegative atom in another molecule
The strength of forces descend in the following order:
- Covalent: Hydrogen Bond>Dipole-Dipole>London Force
The process of gaining electrons to form a negative anion is called...
The process of losing electrons to form a positive cation is called...
The octet rule states...
That elements tend to lose, gain electrons or share electrons in order to achieve a noble gas electron configuration
Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points because of...
The strong electrostatic forces of attraction between between ions in their lattice structures
In order to melt an ionic solid...
There must be enough energy to break apart electrostatic forces
The definition of volatility is...
The tendency of a substance to vapourize
The definition of a covalent bond is...
A bond where elements share electrons with each other in order to achieve the electron configuration of noble gas
Ionic bonds are formed between...
Cations and anions
Covalent bonds are formed between...
The definition of bond length is...
The distance between 2 bonded nuclei
The greater the number of shared electrons...
The shorter and stronger the bonds are
The definition of a resonance structure is...
When a structure can contain a double bond in more than one location without changing the arrangement of the atoms
The definition of a coordinate covalent bond is...
A covalent bond where one atom does all the sharing
The definition of a non-polar covalent bond is...
A bond between atoms with the same or insignificant differences in electronegtivities
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