Ch. 09 Biomes

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Ch. 09 Biomes
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  1. Biogeography
    Study of the distribution of plants and animals, their spatial organization, and natural processes that produce these patterns
  2. Ecosystem
    A self-regulating associaiotn of biotic (living plants and animals) and abiotic (non-living physical environment) environmental components
  3. Ecology
    Study of relationships between organisms and there environment and among ecosystems
  4. Community
    biotic subdivision within an ecosystem
  5. Habitat
    physical location of an organism
  6. Niche
    • function of a lief form within a community
    • habitat niche
    • trophic niche
    • reproductive niche
  7. Gases
    most abundant natural elements in living matter are H O and C (99%)
  8. Nutrients
    essential for the growth and development of organisms include nitrogen, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, and phosphorus
  9. O C and N all have gaseous cycles that partly take place in the atmosphere
  10. Other elements have sedimentary cycles that involve mineral and solid phases
  11. biogeochemical cycles
    some element combine gaseous and sedimentary cycles within both living and non-living systems
  12. Photosynthesis
    unites C02 and H and requires visible light
  13. Carbs form simple sugars used by plants to build starches into more complex carbohydrates
  14. Plant respiration
    the reverse of photosynthesis
  15. net photosynthesis
    photosynthesis production minus respiration
  16. Net Primary Productivity
    the amount of stored chemical energy (biomass) that a plant community can generate through photosynthesis for an entire ecosystem
  17. Biomass
    the net dry weight of organic material which can be mapped in terms of fixed carbon per square meter per year
  18. Trophic level
    Organisms that share the same basic foods
  19. Producers
    Organisms that use carbon dioxide as sole source of carbon
  20. Consumers
    organisms that depend on producers for their carbon
  21. Herbivores
    primary consumers
  22. carnivores
    secondary consumers
  23. Energy flows through an ecosystem through food chains but ecosystems are structured in complex networks of interconnected chains called a food web
  24. Biodiversity
    species richness
  25. Resilience
    Stability may not foster the ability to recover from disturbance or change
  26. Primary succession
    Occurs in areas of bare rock or soil where no traces of a previous community exists
  27. Secondary succession
    can occur if remnants of a previously functioning community are present
  28. Terrestrial Biome
    a large, stable terrestrial ecosystem characterized by specific plant and animal communities
  29. biomes divided into formation classes
  30. Ecotones
    represents a boundary transition zone between ecosystems or biomes
  31. Alpine Desert
    Extremely dry upper slopes of shield volcanoes
  32. Subalpine forest
    relatively dry upper slopes of high islands above 2000m
  33. Montane dry and mesic forest
    transition zone on leeward slopes of high islands between subalpine and wet forests
  34. Wet forest
    windward slopes from 2000 meters asl to sea level
  35. Lowland dry and mesic forest
    Most extensive on lower leeward slopes of mature high islands
  36. Lowland dry grasslands/shrubland
    hot dry leeward plains and lowlands

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