A&P ch1

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pinkashley
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A&P ch1
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2010-08-24 14:23:36
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Chapter 1
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  1. Anatomy
    the branch of science that deals with the sructure of body parts
  2. physiology
    concerns the functions of body parts
  3. atoms
    chemicals consist of mictoscopic particles
  4. molecules
    groups of atoms
  5. maromolecules
    group of molecules
  6. cell
    group of organelles....basic unit of structure and function in organisms
  7. organelles
    groups of macromolecules....carry out specifi acticites..compesed of aggregates of macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
  8. tissue
    group of cells organized into layers or other sructures that have common functions
  9. organs
    group of different tissues that interact...complex stuctues with specialized functions
  10. organ systems
    groups of organs that function closely together
  11. organism
    are made up of organ systems
  12. metabolism
    the sum total of all of the chemical reactions in the body that break substances down and build them up
  13. Requirements of organisms
    • 1. Water
    • 2. Foods
    • 3. Oxygen
    • 4. Heat
    • 5. Pressure
  14. Characteristics of Life
    • 1. Movement-Change in position of the body or of a body part: motion of an internal organ
    • 2. Responsiveness- Reaction to change inside or outside the body
    • 3. Growth- Increase in bodysize without change in shape
    • 4.Reproductive- Production of new organisms and new cells
    • 5. Respiration- use of oxygen: removal of CO2
    • 6.Digestion- Breakdown of food into simpler forms
    • 7. Absotption- movement of substances through membrans and into fluids
    • 8. Circulation- Movement with body fluids
    • 9. Assimilation- Changing nutrients into chemically different forms
    • 10. Excretion- removal of wast
  15. homeostasis
    maintenace of a stable internal encironment
  16. negative feedback
    • two recptors
    • one tells body to start
    • other tells body to stop
  17. positive feedback
    • recpotors start and dont stop
    • ex blood clotting
  18. Receptors
    provide info about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment
  19. set point
    tells what a particulat value should be
  20. effectors
    cause responses that alter conditions in the internal environment
  21. axial
    includes the head neck and trunk
  22. appendicular
    includes the upper and lower limbs
  23. cranial cavity
    houses the brain
  24. vertebral cavity
    contains the spainal cord within the sections of the backbone
  25. thoracic cavity
    space above diaphragm...contains the heart,lungs and mediastinum
  26. mediastinum
    separates the thoracic cavity into two compartmetns...contains the heart, esophagus, trachea,and thymus
  27. abdominopelvic cavity
    space between the diaphragma and the lower portion of the trunk of the body
  28. abdominal cavity
    includes the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines
  29. pelvic cavity
    contains the termainal portion of the large intestine, unrinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs...enclosed by the hip bones
  30. oral cavity
    contains the teethand tongue
  31. nasal cavity
    located within the nose and divided into right and left portions by nasal septum. serveral air-filled esinusis connect to the casal cavity. these include the frontal and sphenoidal sinuses
  32. orbital cavities
    contain the eyes and associated skeletgal muscles and nerves
  33. middle ear cavities
    contain middle ear bones
  34. parietal
    refers to the membrane attached to the wall of a cavity
  35. visceral
    membrane that is deeper...toward the interior and covers an internal organ
  36. pleural cavity
    the space between the parietal and visceral pleural membranes... is a thin filmof water fluids which the parietal and visceral membranes secrete
  37. pericardial membranes
    surrounds the heart...a thin visceral pericardium covers the hearts surface and is separted from a thicker parietal pericardum by a small colume of fluid; the pericardial cavity
  38. integumentary system
    includes the skein and carious accesory organs, such as hair, nails, sweet glands, and sevaceous glands...protect the underlying tissues, helps regulate body temp, houses a variety of sensory receptors and synthesizes certain products
  39. skeletal system
    consists of bones as well as ligaments adn cartilages that bind bones together...provide framwork and protectice shields for softer tissues, are attachments for muscles, and act with muscles when body parts move
  40. muscular system
    constist of muscles... by contracting and pulling their ends colser together muscles proved forces that move body parts they also maintain posture and are the main source of body heat
  41. nervous system
    constists of the brain, spianal cord, nerves, adn sense organs...coordinates the activities of muscles, monitors organs, constructs and processes data received from the senses, and initiates actions
  42. endocrine system
    includes all the glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones..... hypothalamus of the brain; pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands; pancreas, overies, testes, pineal gland , and thymus...
  43. cardiovascular system
    transports substances throughout the internal environment...includes the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries and blood
  44. lymphatic system
    composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen...transports some of the tissue fluid back to the bloodstream and carries certain fatty substances away fromm the digestive organs and into the bloodstream
  45. digestive system
    includes the mouth tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, and small/large intestine
  46. respiratory system
    moves airin and out and exchange gases between blood and the air....includes nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
  47. urinary system
    consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
  48. reproductive system
    • produces whole new organisms like itself
    • ~male-scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, siminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis, and urethra
    • ~female-ovaries, utertine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva
  49. anaomical positon
    body is standing efect, facing forward, with upper limbs at sides, and palms forward.
  50. superior
    body part is aboce anoter part or is closer to head...the thoracic cavity is superior to abdominopelvic cavity
  51. inferior
    body part is below another body part or is toward the feet....neck is inferior to the head
  52. anterior (ventral)
    means towrd the front...the eyes ore anterior to the brain
  53. posterior (dorsal)
    toward the back...the pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity
  54. medial
    refers to an imaginaty midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves. a body part is medial if ti is closer to this line than another part...the nose is medial to the eyes
  55. lateral
    towrd the side with respect tho imaginary midline...the ears are lateral to they eyes
  56. bilateral
    paird structures, one which is on each side...the lungs are bilateral
  57. ipsilateral
    structures on the same side...the right lung and the right kidney are ipsilateral
  58. contralateral
    structures on the opposite side....a patient with a fractured right leg would have to beart wight on the contralateral...inthis case left lower limb
  59. proximal
    body part that is closer to point of attachment to the trunk than another body part....the elbow is prozimal to the wrist....(proximal tubule..which is closer to filtering stucture inthe kidney
  60. distal
    particulat body part is farther from a pint of attacment to ht trunk thatn another body part....the fingers are distal to the wrist ( may also refer to another reerence point suchas decreased blood flow distal to occlusion of a coronary artery)
  61. superficial
    situated near the surface...the epidermis is the superficial layer of skin
  62. peripheral
    outward or near the surface...describes the location of certain blood vessels and nerves..,. the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord are peripheral nerves
  63. sagittal
    lenghtwise plane that divides the body into right and left protions
  64. median (midsagittal)
    when sagittal plane passes along the midline
  65. parasagittal
    sagittal section lateral to midline
  66. transverse
    plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
  67. coronal
    plane the divides the body int anterior and posterior portions
  68. epigastric region
    upper middle portion
  69. left and right hypochondriac regiopns
    lie on each side of the epigatric region
  70. umbilical region
    middle portion
  71. left and right lumbar regions
    lie on each side of the umbilical region
  72. hypogastic region
    lower middle portion
  73. region between the thorax and pelvis
    abdominal

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