Fundamentals of Instruction

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Fundamentals of Instruction
2015-10-22 19:54:29
FOI Fundementalsof intruction

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  1. Characteristics of Learning
    • (PEMA)
    • Purposeful: Students need a reason to learn something
    • Experience: Students can only learn from individual experience
    • Multifaceted: Involves verbal, conceptual, motor, problem solving and emotional.
    • Active process: Don't assume that a student remembers something that was taught
  2. Laws of Learning
    • (REEPIR)
    • Readiness: The student must be ready and willing to learn
    • Exercise: The things most often repeated are best remembered. Every time practice occurs, learning continues
    • Effect: Pleasant, satisfying feelings help learning.
    • Primacy: Things learned must be right the first time
    • Intensity: A vivid, dramatic, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring one.
    • Recency: Things most recently learned are best remembered.
  3. Levels of Learning
    • Rote: Ability to repeat without understanding. Memorization
    • Understanding: Theoretical knowledge
    • Application: Ability to apply what they have learned
    • Correlation: Ability to combine several skills to perform a complex task
  4. Factors to Forgetting
    • Disuse: lack of knowledge used
    • Interference: Outside items causing interference with memory
    • Repression: Bad experiences causing you to hide memories
  5. Factors to Retention
    • (PARAS)
    • Praise: Stimulates memory
    • Association: Promotes recall (examples)
    • Repetition: Meaningful repetition aids recall (3-4 times is best)
    • Attitude: Favorable attitudes aid retention (have a good attitude)
    • Senses: Learning with all senses is most effective (visual aids)
    • Mnemonics: Fancy way to say acronym
  6. Defense Mechanisms
    • Repression:A person places uncomfortable thoughts into inaccessible areas of the unconscious mind.
    • React Formation: A person fakes a belief opposite to the true belief because the true belief causes anxiety.
    • Rationalization:Is a subconscious technique for justifying actions that otherwise would be unacceptable.
    • Denial: Is a refusal to accept external reality because it is too threatening.
    • Displacement: Avoids the risk associated with feeling unpleasant emotions and puts then somewhere other than where they belong.
    • Compensation: Is a process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weaknesses by emphasizing strength in other areas
    • Fantasy: Occurs when a student engages in daydreams about how things should be rather than doing anything about how things are
    • Projection: An individual places his or her own unacceptable impulses onto someone else.
  7. The Teaching Process
    • (PPARE)
    • Preparation:
    • Presentation:
    • Application:
    • Review:
    • Evaluation:
  8. Critique and Evaluation
    • (FOCCATOS)
    • Flexible: The instructor must fit the tone, technique, and content to the occasion and the student. A flexible critique must satisfy the requirements of the moment.
    • Objective: Your critique should be based on student performance and not influenced by your general impression of the student, whether favorable or unfavorable. Treat every student as an individual
    • Comprehensive: Your critique should include both STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES, but no necessarily in detail. You must decide whether the greater benefit will come from a critique of a few major points, or several minor points.
    • Constructive: Your critique must guide and direct student  performance by giving them positive guidance for correction the faults and strengthening the weaknesses. 
    • Acceptable: For the student to accept your critique, he must first have the confidence that you are in a position to critique (if someone you don't like tells you that you are a bad person, you probably wouldn't care at all. If someone you like says the same,  you would  indeed consider that you might be a bad person.)
    • Thoughtful: While being straightforward and honest, you should always respect the student's feelings. Think about what you are going to say.
    • Organized: A critique should follow some pattern of organization. Almost any pattern is acceptable, as long as it is logical to the student and the instructor. One effective pattern is the sequence of the performance itself.
    • Specific: The student cannot improve unless the specifically know where and how to improve. "the first auto was better than the second" Doesn't five the student anything to work on. Specify what they need to do better.
  9. Questions to Avoid
    • The Yes or No question
    • The Puzzle question
    • The Oversize question
    • The Toss-up question
    • The Bewildering question
  10. Effective Written Tests
    • Comprehensiveness: The test must sample liberally whatever is being measured. It must include a variety of areas.
    • Usability: usable written test is easy to give, easily readable with clear and concise wording. Illustrations are clearly drawn. It must be easily gradable.
    • Reliability: A written test has reliability when it yields a consistent result. There must be a certain uniformity in the results from various students.
    • Validity: A written test is valid if it measure what it is supposed to measure, and nothing else. A test is supposed to measure the students application, and not the ability to recall and write down facts.
    • Discrimination: The written test must be able to measure differences in student achievement. It must distinguish between students both high and low in achievement.
  11. Flight Instructor Characteristics and Responsibilities
    • (SALADSI)
    • Sincerity: The professional CFI should be honest and straightforward in every way. The student must see you as a competent, qualified teacher as well as an expert pilot. Care about your students progress.
    • Acceptance: Accept your students as they are, with their faults and their problems. The students want to fly, and you can teach them to fly. You are both working toward the same goal. Accept and support your students in all aspects.
    • Language: Professional CFI's do not use obscene language and profanities.
    • Appearance: