What is the constituent component of the Earths atmosphere?
How much oxygen is in the Earths atmosphere?
List the layers of the atmosphere in the correct order
Describe how and where Ozone forms
Forms in the Stratosphere
Ozone is 3 atoms of oxygen joined together to create an ozone molecule
Explain how Global Warming Occurs
Human industrial activities are increasing the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide and water vapor produce a natural greenhouse effect.
CFC's absorb UV radiation and break down into chlorine oxide (CIO) molecules, that, in turn, attack ozone molecules and convert them into oxygen atoms. The effect is the ozone layer is depleted and more UV radiation reaches the ground because less is absorbed in the atmosphere.
Describe El Nino events
- occurs around Christmas
- the low pressure zone migrates eastwards to the middle of the Pacific
- Easterly trade winds are replaced by Westerlies
-Warm surface water is blown from West to East
- Up welling cold water is trapped under warm water
- Lower than normal air pressure in the eastern Pacific, higher air pressure in the Western Pacific
Describe La Nina conditions
- Northeasterly winds
- East - more rain
- West - less rain
- Glaciers receed
- An exaggeration of "normal" conditions
- Easterly trade winds are stronger
- Walker circulation intensifies
Outline some impacts of El Nino conditions
-More Westerlies in NZ (less rain in the east, more in the west)
Describe the formation of precipitation including the four mechanical mechanisms of uplift
Define Orbital Forcing
the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis and shape of the orbit
Precession of the Equinoxes - 21000yrs (direction of the axis)
Obliquity of the Ecliptic - 42000yrs
(angle of axial inclination)
Eccentricity - 96000yrs
(the shape of the earths orbit)
Explain abiotic ecosystem components
Non-living things, physical and chemical
-Physical Factors - (eg)slope
-Precipitation & Water
Explain Biotic Factors
Living things and their interactions -
- Mutualism - interaction both species benefit
- Antagonism - organism feeding from another
A sequence of ecological changes in an area whereby one group of a plant and/or animal species successively gives way to another - each stage makes it more habitual for the next
- Eventually becomes a climax community.
Explain the serial stages of general ecological succession in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
Compare and contrast the characteristics of the 12 terrestrial biomes accounting for similarities and differences between the biomes
Tropical Deciduous Forest and Scrub
Midlatitude Deciduous Forest
Mediterranean Woodland and Shrub
Midlatitude Coniferous Forest
Hot and Dry Desert
Semi-arid and Cold Desert
Arctic and Alpine Ice
May have different species present but they have similar behavior patterns and characteristics
Describe and account for the key biotic and abiotic characteristics for each of the 12 biomes
Long winters, a short growing season of 60 -80 days, vegetation of herbs, small shrubs, lichens and mosses, and location atvery high northern latitudes are characteristic of which terrestrial biome?
True or False:
The boreal forest biome has the lowest diversity of all the terrestrial biomes
The follow features are characteristics of which terrestrial biome: Long winters; a short growing season of 60 - 80 days; vegetation of evergreen needle-leaved trees; and location at high northern latitudes?
The following features are characteristics of which terrestrial biome: Vegetation dominated by a thick cover of woody shrubs or scattered trees and open grassy patches; moisture excess in winter; and location on the west coast in the lower middle latitudes?
Name the major component of the global atmospheric circulation system responsible for the climate of the hot dry desert biome.
The hot low-latitude desert climate is dominated by the STH Pressure System.
What is the main difference between the Tropical Rainforest biome and the Tropical Savannah biome?
The Tropical Rainforest receives twice as much rain as the Tropical Savannah.
Semi-arid and Cold Deserts typically receive more rainfall than Hot, Dry Deserts - True or False?
Describe IGNEOUS rock
Cooled from Molten Magma
When the magma cools, the elements combine to form crystals of different minerals:
What is the term used for Igneous rock cooled below the earths surface?
What is the term used for Igneous rock erupted and cooled above the earths surface?
How are Igneous Rocks categorized?
Origin - Plutonic/Volcanic
Texture - grain size
Describe SEDIMENTARY rock
Formed from the accumulation of pre-existing mineral grains, rock fragments, organic matter etc.
Sediments become lithified.
Need source of sediment and room to accumulate.
What are the three main types of Sedimentary rock?
Clastic - rock and mineral fragments held together with a cementing agent
Organic - organic material such as shells and plant remains
Crystalline - e.g. Salt
Describe METAMORPHIC rocks
Formed from altering of pre-existing igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rocks
Exposure to pressure and/or temperature leads to alteration of mineralogy and texture of pre-existing rock.
Give some examples of Sedimentary Rock
Name two rock types which are comprised of volcanic glass
The abundance of which one chemical compound is chiefly responsible for magma's ability to flow?
The Earth is closest to the sun at perihelion on July 4 each year - True or False?
Southern Hemisphere Winters are currently at aphelion or perihelion?
Oxygen isotope values from sea floor sediments are relatively enriched in the heavy isotype (18 O) during cold, glacial periods - True or False?
16 O is evaporated
During a warm period, are oceans enriched or depleted of 18 O?
Give some examples of Tephra.
- anything that flies out of a volcano and is ejected
-ash -less than 2mm
Draw and label the Rock Cycle
Name the characteristics to compare EFFUSIVE vs EXPLOSIVE volcanic eruptions
Volatile (gas) context
Magma composition -SiO2 content
List the characteristics of Rhyolitic Volcanism
>65% SiO2 - Silicic Magma
e.g. Lake Taupo
List the characteristics of Andesitic Volcanism
55% - 65% SiO2 - intermediate magma
In general more explosive
Activity can also be effusive
e.g. Mt Ruapehu
List the characteristics of Basaltic Volcanism
45% - 55% Basaltic/mafic magmas
Name the Vocanic Landforms
What are the types of Lava Flows?
Pahoehoe - ropey, smooth
A'a - blocky
Which type of crust (lithosphere) is typically older?
The Continental Crust
(The Oceanic Crust is constantly being recycled)
What is the name of the super-continent?
What is evidence used to support theories of continental drift and plate tectonics?
Matching Fossils across continents
Geographic fir of continents
What properties describe the nature of the oceanic crust?
Which tectonic plate interactions occurs immediately to the east of New Zealand's North Island
Oceanic - Continental collision
Mid-ocean ridges are associated with which tectonic plate interactions?
Describe the Continental Shelf
Submerged, thinned continental crust
(shields and platforms)
Old and Stable Continental Crust
Why are there so many craters on the moon compared to earth?
There is no erosion on the moon so the craters are more preserved
There is no atmosphere to burn up meteroites
Plate tectonics aren't on the moon, there is no crust recycling