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4 major tissues?
nervous, muscle, epithelial, and connective
- composed of entirely cells
- special contacts (held together by hooked membranes)
- it has basal and apical surfaces
- no blood vessels
simple squamous which lines blood vessels
simple squamous which forms serious membranes
- line body cavities
- moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavity
one or more cells that makes and secretes an aquenous fluid
- secretes body: into blood and interstitial fluid
- ductless glads that produce hormones
in between tissues
whats the only important unicellular gland? and why?
- the goblet cell
- they line the large intestine and they secrete the lubricating mucous
what are multicelluar exocrine glands composed of?
a duct and secretory unit
the process of pinching off to created new epithelial tubes
mode of secretion?
merocrine and holocrine
products secreted by exocytosis
like pancreas, sweat, and salivary glands
products secreted by the rupture of glands
like sebaceous glads (makes you hair shiny)
- its the most abundant in the body
- connective proper
functions of connective tissues?
- binding and support
where are all connective tissues originated from?
- consist of ground substance and fibers
- fills up space
- collagen- tough
- elastic- stretch
- reticular- support
cells in connective tissue proper?
cells in cartilage?
cell in bone?
cells that generate blood cells?
hematopoietic stem cells
signal the body to trigger allegic reactions and inflammation
red blood cells
- white blood celss
- fight off infections
an innate (nonspecific) defensive response to tissues injury
platelets forming together to form a scab
- composed of atleast 2 tissues types
- epithelia and underlying connective tissue
- lines body cavities open to exterior
- ex. digestive and respiratory tracts
what does serous membranes contain?
simple squamous epithelial tissues : mesothelium
lines internal body cavities
covers the internal organs
separates the serosae
layers of skin?
- epidermis- outtermost (dead)
- dermis- middle
- hypodermis- deepest
cells that produce the fibrous protein keratin
cells that produce the brown pigment
little bodies that hook cells together
- (basal layer)
- deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to the epidermis
- consist of a single row of the youngest karatinocytes
- cells undergo rapid cell division
- (prickly layer)
- cells contain a weblike system of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes
- melanin granules and Langerhans' cells are abindant in this layer
thin; three to five cell layers in which drastic flattening of keratinocyte appearance occurs
- horny layer
- outermost layer of dead keratinized cells
- accounts for three quarters of the epidermal thickness
- protective layer
layers of epidermis
- stratum basal
- stratum spinosum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum corneunt
second major skin region containing strong , flexible connective tissue
what cell type are in the dermis?
fibroblast, macrophages, and sometimes mast and white blood cells
layers of the dermis?
papillary layer and reticular layer
areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers
dense irregular connective tissue
what three pigment contribute to the color of skin?
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin
yellow to reddish-brown to black pigment, responsible for dark skin colors
yellow to orange pigment, most obvious in the palms and soles of feet
reddish pigment responsible for pinkish hue of skin
abinos have no what?
solution of water with various salts and minute amounts of fatty materials, urea, and other wastes
- sweat glands
- merocrine exocrine glands
- prevents overheating of the body, evaporate cooling
eccrine sweat glands
widely distributed, concentrated in plams, soles of feet, and forehead
Apocrine sweat glands
found in axillary and anogenital areas
modified apocrine glands in external ear canal that secrete cerumen
specialized glands that secret milk
holocrine exocrine gland
- simple alveolar glands found all over the body
- mainly hair follicles
- secrete oil called sebum
- softens and lubricates skin
oil that comes out of your head (in your hair)
- filamentous stands of dead keratinized cells produced by hair follicles
- contains hard keratin
- pigmented by melanocytes at the base of hair
- root sheath extending from epidermal surface to the dermis
- deep end is expanded forming a hair bulb
bending a hair does what?
- it stimulates ending, hence our hairs act as sensitive touch receptors
- a knot of sensory nerve ending wraps around each hair bulb
function of integumentary system
- body temperature regulation
- cutaneous sensation
- metabolic functions
- blood reservoir
how does the dermis control your temperature?
- dilation- (cooling and constriction (warming) of dermal vessels
- evaporate cooling - increasing sweat gland secretions
exoreceptors sense touch and pain
how does the integumentary system do metabolic functions?
synthesis of vitamin D in dermal blood vessels
how much blood does the skin store?
up to 5%
sensory apparatus of skin?
- Epidermis- merkal cells
- dermis- Meissner's corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles, free nerve endings, hair follicles receptors
deep pressure, stretch
free nerve endings
temperature, pH, pain
characteristics of transformed cells?
- resist growth-inhibitory signals such as contact inhibition
- generate their own growth promoting signals
- bypass apoptosis
- acquire vasculature
- invade and metatasize
- basal cell carcinoma
- squamous cell carcinoma
- melanoma- melanocytes
- Asymetrical skin lesion
- Border of lesion is irregular
- Color- multiple
- diameter- greater than 5mm
- Evolution- cahnge