A&P chap 10

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  1. 4 major tissues?
    nervous, muscle, epithelial, and connective
  2. epithelial tissue?
    • composed of entirely cells
    • special contacts (held together by hooked membranes)
    • it has basal and apical surfaces
    • no blood vessels
    • regenerative
  3. endothelium
    simple squamous which lines blood vessels
  4. mesothelium
    simple squamous which forms serious membranes
  5. meso
  6. serious memebrane?
    • line body cavities
    • moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavity
  7. glad?
    one or more cells that makes and secretes an aquenous fluid
  8. endocrine glands
    • secretes body: into blood and interstitial fluid
    • ductless glads that produce hormones
  9. interstitial
    in between tissues
  10. whats the only important unicellular gland? and why?
    • the goblet cell
    • they line the large intestine and they secrete the lubricating mucous
  11. what are multicelluar exocrine glands composed of?
    a duct and secretory unit
  12. invagination ?
    the process of pinching off to created new epithelial tubes
  13. mode of secretion?
    merocrine and holocrine
  14. merocrine
    products secreted by exocytosis

    like pancreas, sweat, and salivary glands
  15. holocrine
    products secreted by the rupture of glands

    like sebaceous glads (makes you hair shiny)
  16. connective tissues?
    • its the most abundant in the body
    • blood
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • connective proper
  17. functions of connective tissues?
    • binding and support
    • protection
    • insulation
    • transpotation
  18. where are all connective tissues originated from?
  19. extracellular matrix?
    • consist of ground substance and fibers
    • fills up space
  20. fibers
    • collagen- tough
    • elastic- stretch
    • reticular- support
  21. cells in connective tissue proper?
  22. fibroblast
  23. cells in cartilage?
  24. cell in bone?
  25. cells that generate blood cells?
    hematopoietic stem cells
  26. masts cells?
    signal the body to trigger allegic reactions and inflammation
  27. erythrocytes?
    red blood cells
  28. leukocytes?
    • white blood celss
    • fight off infections
  29. dialation
  30. inflammation?
    an innate (nonspecific) defensive response to tissues injury
  31. clotting?
    platelets forming together to form a scab
  32. tissue memebranes
    • composed of atleast 2 tissues types
    • epithelia and underlying connective tissue
  33. cutaneous
    skin surface
  34. epithelial membranes
    • cutaneous
    • mucous
    • serious
  35. muscous
    • lines body cavities open to exterior
    • ex. digestive and respiratory tracts
  36. what does serous membranes contain?
    simple squamous epithelial tissues : mesothelium
  37. parietal serosa
    lines internal body cavities
  38. visceral serosa
    covers the internal organs
  39. serious fluid?
    separates the serosae
  40. layers of skin?
    • epidermis- outtermost (dead)
    • dermis- middle
    • hypodermis- deepest
  41. keratino
    cells that produce the fibrous protein keratin
  42. melanocytes
    cells that produce the brown pigment
  43. desmosomes
    little bodies that hook cells together
  44. stratum basale
    • (basal layer)
    • deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to the epidermis
    • consist of a single row of the youngest karatinocytes
    • cells undergo rapid cell division
  45. stratum epinosum
    • (prickly layer)
    • cells contain a weblike system of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes
    • melanin granules and Langerhans' cells are abindant in this layer
  46. Stratum Granulosum
    thin; three to five cell layers in which drastic flattening of keratinocyte appearance occurs
  47. keratinocyte
    skin cells
  48. keratin
  49. stratum corneunt
    • horny layer
    • outermost layer of dead keratinized cells
    • accounts for three quarters of the epidermal thickness
    • protective layer
  50. layers of epidermis
    • stratum basal
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum corneunt
  51. dermis
    second major skin region containing strong , flexible connective tissue
  52. what cell type are in the dermis?
    fibroblast, macrophages, and sometimes mast and white blood cells
  53. layers of the dermis?
    papillary layer and reticular layer
  54. papillary layer
    areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers
  55. reticular layer
    dense irregular connective tissue
  56. what three pigment contribute to the color of skin?
    melanin, carotene, hemoglobin
  57. melanin
    yellow to reddish-brown to black pigment, responsible for dark skin colors
  58. carotene
    yellow to orange pigment, most obvious in the palms and soles of feet
  59. hemoglobin
    reddish pigment responsible for pinkish hue of skin
  60. abinos have no what?
  61. sweat?
    solution of water with various salts and minute amounts of fatty materials, urea, and other wastes
  62. sudoriferous glands
    • sweat glands
    • merocrine exocrine glands
    • prevents overheating of the body, evaporate cooling
  63. eccrine sweat glands
    widely distributed, concentrated in plams, soles of feet, and forehead
  64. Apocrine sweat glands
    found in axillary and anogenital areas
  65. ceruminous glands
    modified apocrine glands in external ear canal that secrete cerumen
  66. mammary glands
    specialized glands that secret milk
  67. holocrine exocrine gland
    • simple alveolar glands found all over the body
    • mainly hair follicles
    • secrete oil called sebum
    • softens and lubricates skin
  68. sebum
    oil that comes out of your head (in your hair)
  69. hair
    • filamentous stands of dead keratinized cells produced by hair follicles
    • contains hard keratin
    • pigmented by melanocytes at the base of hair
  70. hair follicle
    • root sheath extending from epidermal surface to the dermis
    • deep end is expanded forming a hair bulb
  71. bending a hair does what?
    • it stimulates ending, hence our hairs act as sensitive touch receptors
    • a knot of sensory nerve ending wraps around each hair bulb
  72. function of integumentary system
    • protection
    • body temperature regulation
    • cutaneous sensation
    • metabolic functions
    • blood reservoir
    • excretion
  73. how does the dermis control your temperature?
    • dilation- (cooling and constriction (warming) of dermal vessels
    • evaporate cooling - increasing sweat gland secretions
  74. cutaneous sensation
    exoreceptors sense touch and pain
  75. how does the integumentary system do metabolic functions?
    synthesis of vitamin D in dermal blood vessels
  76. how much blood does the skin store?
    up to 5%
  77. sensory apparatus of skin?
    • Epidermis- merkal cells
    • dermis- Meissner's corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles, free nerve endings, hair follicles receptors
  78. merkal cells
    light touch
  79. Meissner's corpuscles
    discriminative touch
  80. Pacinian corpuscles
    deep pressure, stretch
  81. free nerve endings
    temperature, pH, pain
  82. hair follicle?
    hair deflection
  83. characteristics of transformed cells?
    • resist growth-inhibitory signals such as contact inhibition
    • generate their own growth promoting signals
    • bypass apoptosis
    • acquire vasculature
    • immortal
    • invade and metatasize
  84. skin cancer
    • basal cell carcinoma
    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • melanoma- melanocytes
  85. ABCDE
    • melanoma
    • Asymetrical skin lesion
    • Border of lesion is irregular
    • Color- multiple
    • diameter- greater than 5mm
    • Evolution- cahnge
Card Set:
A&P chap 10
2015-11-15 21:26:29
chap 10
A&P chap 10
A&P chap 10
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