Anth115 Exam 2
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What is a commodity chain?
- Following a commodity from parts and raw materials à manufacturing and assembly à distribution
- Refers to the range of activities involved in the design, production, and marketing of a product
Why does Ramioul think the usefulness of the commodity chain concept is limited in today’s globalizing economy?
It applies mainly towards moving physical items around the globe which is not what goes on today because a large percentage of the world economy is in services
Explain Porter’s concept of a value chain and how it differs from Gereffi’s commodity chain..
- Products pass through various stages and value is added at these various stages
- Services, enhancements, etc…
How has information technology made globalizing the value chains easier?
Because of the associated services that come with a value chain such as warranties and software
What are the consequences of globalizing values chain for workers?
It hurts the workers because a lot of jobs associated with the value chain have been outsourced.
Who is the biggest producer of coffee in Africa?
Is there an international group that regulates the price of coffee?
Not since 1989
Why do the coffee farmers think they get a low price for their coffee?
- Because nobody regulates the market
- They get no up to date information
How does the coffee union work?
Brings in the coffee from Ethiopian farmers and distributes it around the world
Where is the international price of coffee established?
New York and London
What is the secondly most widely traded commodity in the world?
What is the price of coffee auctioned in Addis Abbaba based on?
The New York Commodities market
What is the goal of the representative of the coffee union?
- To put profits in the pockets of the farmers
- To increase the quality of life for the farmers
does it cost to produce a kilo of coffee in Central America? What does it sell for?
90 cents and sells for 63 cents
What was the central issue of the World Trade Organization talks in Cancun as far as third world nations are concerned?
- Fair representation
- Stop the subsidization of American and EU farmers
- Stop the close door meetings
What is kodawari? How does White use ethnographic description in this chapter to explain kodawari? Give an example of someone who practices kodawari in your experience.
- Obsession with something/drive for excellence
- The small coffee bars in Japan that make incredible coffee and by describing various works that people perform in Japan with kodawari
Give an example of a producer driven commodity chain and a buyer driven commodity chain from the sequence of tomato growing, processing, transportation and consumption.
- Roma tomato is a producer driven commodity
- Beef steak and heirloom tomatoes are buyer driven
What is meant by the international sexual division of labor?
Women work the line and men work the pallets
How does "dumping," human and drug trafficking influence the how tomatoes are regulated and transported?
Agriculture inspections are used to check for human trafficking and drugs instead of checking the tomatoes.
Where was the Flavr Savr tomato developed?
What did Calgene expect would be their first genetically engineered plant? What was special about it?
- The bromoTol cotton seed
- Resistance to herbicide
What was special about tomatoes with the Flavr Savr gene?
They lasted several weeks at room temperature without rotting
Who was in charge of tomato research at Calgene? Did he want to talk to the press about the Flavr Savr? Why or why not?
- William Hiatt
- He did not want to talk to the press because the experiment has only been run once
What are premium tomatoes? What was it about the Flavr Savr that Calgene thought would put it in the premium market?
- High quality vine ripened tomatoes
- They could be vine ripened more easily than traditional tomatoes
What does the tomato industry to do make tomatoes picked green attractive to consumers? What was the drawback to this practice?
- They were artificially ripened used gas
- They did not taste good
Why did Calgene think that the Flavr Savr would be a good bet for the first genetically modified food to go on the market?
They felt it would receive minimal backlash for being genetically modified
What is a “vertical integration” strategy? What did this imply for the Flavr Savr?
- A business concept that focused on both input business and output business.
- It implied control from farmer to customer of every business Calgene entered
Who controlled Calgene’s tomato research? What strategy did Calgene take to try to get control of the Flavr Savr?
- Campbell’s soup
- They wanted to control all the business associated with the product
Why did Calgene need a success with the Flavr Savr?
Investors were expecting a lot from the failing company and the tomato was their first chance at profits
What was the flaw in the research about the Flavr Savr that may have doomed the effort to market it?
The tomato was just a hypothesis that has not been fully researched and tested.
What did Wagster blame for Calgene’s financial setbacks and what did he do about it.
- Research and development spending
- Began to layoff the scientists
What is sovereignty?
The concept that a state is in complete and exclusive control of all the people and property within their territory
Give an example of conflicting claims of sovereignty in a political jurisdiction from our lecture of reading.
Texas wanting to succeed from America
What was the “Peace of Westphalia” and why is it important
European states come together and recognized each other’s sovereignty in an attempt to stop the war between states
Name three of the Westphalian ideas about state sovereignty
- All states are recognized as equal under the law, but legal rules do not take into consideration asymmetries of power
- Responsibility for cross-border wrongful acts is a primitive matter concerning only those affected
- The collective priority of all states should be to minimize the impediments to state freedom
Discuss the Mandate of Palestine in the context of state sovereignty. Do you think the Palestinians have a legal right to be recognized as a state? Why or why not?
European powers divided up territory that used to belong to the ottoman empire and the areas of area of Israel and Palestine were given to Great Britain
What are the three factors that Steger says nation-states still control?
Name three of the international institutions attempting to fill the gap left by the demise of the nation-state?
- International Court in the Hague
- International red cross
- Doctors without borders
. Discuss the consequences of the failure of nation-states to control international banking institutions.
- The last economic downturn happened because we took some laws off the stock market and banks that were in place since the 1930s.
- Banks were allowed to trade their own accounts
- It became very lucrative to finance subprime loans.
Name three characteristics of a global democracy as suggested by David Held.
- A global parliament connected to regions, states, and localities
- A new charter of rights locked into different domains of political, social, and economic power
- The formal separation of political and economic interests
How does the U.N. define “refugees”?
Individuals who are outside their own country and are unable to return as a result of the well-founded fear of persecution on grounds of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership of a social group
What rights does a “convention” refugee have that a displaced person does not?
- Entitled to safe asylum
- Not repatriated against will
- Rights to education, medical care
- Freedom of thought, movement, and not to be tortured or degraded
What kinds of cultural changes may accompany becoming an “involuntary immigrant”?
The involuntary immigrant will be forced to adapt to the culture of their new country. Sometimes these transitions are not smooth and go directly go against their personal culture.
What are some of the causes of internal displacement? Give a real world example of each.
- Minority group is displaced from their original land by a more powerful group usually for resources: Somalia is a good example of this
- Natural disasters: Sumatra
- environmental degradation: Oklahoma dust bowl
What are the effects of an influx of refugees on the host country? Give examples
- Differential economic effects
- Differences between cultural norms can create stress between refugees and host populations: Head scarves in France
Stephen Lubkeman points out that “culturally specific social systems play an important role in constituting vulnerability.” What does he mean by this? Give an example.
- It means cultural traditions can have a large impact on the vulnerability of a community
- Mozambique is an example
- Children were taking care of their mothers but not their fathers
How can being a refugee affect the relationship between men and women? Between young people and old people? Give an example of each.
- By loosing home, status, and job friction can be created between men and women and men sometimes have to leave to find work
- The young can work and many of the old cannot and the old have less power over the young
What are some strategies states use to keep refugees out? Give examples.
- Barbed wire fences in Turkey
- Forcible repatriating of refugees caught in before entering the US
- Wall between US and Mexico
What is an NGO? Why are they important to refugees? Name some NGOs that are important to refugees.
- Non-governmental organization
- They provide aid to refugees
- Salvation Army, Doctors without Borders, CARE, OXFAM
. Does humanitarian assistance that does not create sustainable solutions or use local capacities help refugees in the long run?
No it creates dependency
What is the most common cause of food insecurity?
What is a “conservation refugee”?
Pushed out of homed because their homes have become a national park
What is a heifer?
A cow or a gift of an animal
According to the video, what percentage of the world’s consumable goods are purchased by Americans?
If you receive a “gift” from the Heifer Project, what are you obligated to do with it?
pass offspring to other villages
What is the relationship between animal husbandry and organic farming?
- Animals are not allowed to freely graze
- Manure is used to fertilize soil
How does the Heifer Project affect the status of women?
- Women were taught to care for the animals
- Resulting in women gaining power in their communities
- Women allowed to attend school
- Similar to men in decision making
What makes the Heifer Project different from other development projects?
- By teaching communities how to maintain and live off of the land and self reliance
- Looking for long term solutions instead of crisis assistance
How did the Heifer Project promote internal peace in Albania?
With a program that traded guns for animals
Give an example of a food that makes a statement about ethnic identity. What does it say?
Jewish Seder says they recognize the end of their ancestors wandering the desert after the exodus
What are some of the sub-groups within cultures that can be identified by particular food habits?
- Geographic place of origin
- Social class and economic circumstances
What was the relationship between slavery in Brazil and Japanese immigration?
After African slaves in Brazil were liberated, Japan was encouraged to fill the gap left by the abolition of slavery. Japanese workers were particularly sought after, as they were said to be clean, patient, and orderly. These workers later bought land for themselves and continued to produce coffee.
How is the organization of Japanese coffee trading companies different from those of other countries?
Trading company strategies involve a system of vertical integration in which all levels of production, importation, and marketing are centrally managed by a single company
What is the major cause of food insufficiency world wide?
What percentage of the world’s malnourished people are affected by conflict?
Does the world produce enough food to feed its population?
Yes for a vegetarian
What is meant by “Optimal Foraging Strategy”?
Making rational choices about what is hunted or collected for food
What are the three areas where agriculture arose and what were their major crops?
- The fertile crescent: wheat
- East Asia: rice
- Central America: squash
What is “swidden agriculture”?
Slash and burn agriculture: Cut and burn areas to plant agriculture
What are the advantages of using the plow?
More productive because the plow breaks up the soil and allows the field to be used year after year when fertilized with manure
What technologies related to food changed social and political structure?
- Food preservation was instrumental in creating first states, then the global economy
- The creation of food surpluses which resulted from more intensive agriculture contributed to the creation of states, money, economics, and taxes
- Pottery allowed grains to be stored in a dry place which was protected from
What is the relationship between increased world trade and food production?
- Preservation allowed food to be moved far distances
- Exploration was made possible because of salted fish and pork
- Spices became very valuable along trade routes
How is Japanese coffee different than American coffee? How the does the difference reflect a difference in culture?
- Coffee is stronger in Japan
- Taste is specific to regions in Japan
What foods are associated with coffee-drinking in Japan? How do they reflect globalization?
- Western foods
- They reflect globalization because the western foods made their way into the Japanese coffee culture.
What is race?
As social construct of groups based on perceived biological differences
What is ethnicity?
A set of cultural attributed shared by a group who believe they share a common ancestry
What are some characteristics ethnic identity may be based on
- Country of birth
- Language spoken at home
- Skin color
- National origin
- Perceived racial group
What are some of the ways members of militarily superior and/or economically dominant cultural groups have responded to ethnic diversity? Be able to define these terms and give an example of each.
- Assimilation: Assume that people form less technologically advanced, economically advantaged, and politically dominant cultures can and will be absorbed into more powerful and prominent cultures (non-voluntary): The Ainu are an example of this
- Acculturation: assumes that members of non-dominant cultures can be encouraged to voluntarily adapt to selected aspects of the dominant culture without losing all the distinctive aspects of their native life-styles: Islam in Africa
- Syncretism: cultural ideas from different cultures mix to create a new reality: The culture in San Jose
- Subjugation: when a dominant culture forces a non-dominant culture to conform to its ways: Cultural changes forced on Tibetans
- Paternalism: the dominant culture assumes the role of the father of the less dominant culture: British colonization of India
What three areas does Steger define as dominant symbolic meaning systems of our time?
Individualism, consumerism, and various religious discourses
Who does Steger say is creating popular global culture?
Western culture industry
What does Steger say the “McDonaldization” of the world ultimately refer to?
The wide ranging sociocultural processes by which the principles of the fast food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the world
What is the “ethos of infantilization” that Barber says sustains global capitalism?
Turning adults into children through dumbed down advertising and consumer goods while also targeting children as consumers.
What justification do “hyperglobalizers” give for considering the homogenization of global culture a good thing?
Equating Americanization of the globe with the spread of democracy and free markets
What does Roberts mean by “glocalization”?
A complex interaction of the global and local characterized by cultural borrowing
What does Steger see as the result of the cultural power of popular culture presented through the international media? How is this happening?
The undisputed cultural hegemony of popular culture, the depoliticization of social reality, and the weakening of civic bonds
What are the five key variables that influence the globalization of languages?
- Number of languages
- Movements of people
- Foreign language learning and tourism
- Internet languages
- International scientific publications
What is the difference between a “nation” and a “state”? What are the geographical implications of this difference? Give an example of a conflict between the two.
- A nation is a group of people who share the same culture but do not have sovereignty
- A state is a self-governing political entity
Give an example of an ethnic nation which has been given semi-sovereignty by a state
How does Steger define “culture”?
The whole of human experience, in regards to economics, politics , and culture
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