A&P2 - Test 2

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cbennett
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310263
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A&P2 - Test 2
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2015-10-31 15:28:40
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P2 Test
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A&P2 - Test 2
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  1. Name the 5  parts of the electrical conduction system of the heart (in order)
    • SA node
    • AV node
    • AV Bundle of HIS
    • Right and left bundle branches
    • Purkinje conduction fibers
  2. What is the Lubb sound?
    the closure of the two atrioventricular valves at ventricular systole
  3. What is the Dupp sound?
    The semilunar valves close at ventricular diastole
  4. A circulatory system must have
    • circulatory fluid
    • a set of interconnecting vessels
    • a muscular pump (heart)
  5. This type of circulatory system is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid
    Closed circulatory system
  6. Why is a closed circulatory system used by vertebrates more efficient?
    transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells
  7. Name the 3 main types of blood vessels
    • arteries
    • veins
    • capillaries
  8. What is the purpose of arterioles?
    carry blood away from the heart to capillaries
  9. What is the purpose of venules?
    converge into veins and return blood from the capillaries to the heart
  10. How are arteries and veins distinguished?
    by the direction of blood flow - NOT by the O2 content
  11. Blood enters through a what (in the heart)?
    atrium
  12. Blood going toward the heart flows through what vessels?
    veins
  13. Blood traveling away from the heart flows through what vessels?
    arteries
  14. Which side of the human heart is more muscluar?
    • Left side
    • Right side goes a short distance to the lungs so it doesn't require as much muscle
  15. What are the important functions of plasma?
    • lipid transport
    • immunity
    • blood clotting
  16. What is the purpose of hemoglobin?
    regulates blood flow and pressure via the release of nitric oxide which causes vasodilation that improves blood flow and enhances oxygen delivery
  17. Blood is characterized into different blood groups based on the presence or absence of
    glycoprotein and glycolipid antigens (agglutinogens) on the surface of red blood cells
  18. The process of hemostasis involves:
    • Vascular spasm (vasoconstriction
    • Platelet plug formation
    • Blood clotting (coagulation) – fibrinogen to fibrin
  19. The heart is enclosed and held in place by the
    pericardium
  20. Name the three layers of the heart
    • epicardium
    • myocardium
    • endocardium
  21. The innermost tissue of the heart
    endocardium
  22. the middle (muscle layer) of the heart
    myocardium
  23. the visceral layer of serous pericardium
    epicardium
  24. P-wave represents what?
    Atrial systole (contraction)
  25. QRS complex represents what?
    Depolarization of ventricular contractile fibers
  26. T-wave represents what?
    Repolarization of ventricular contractile fibers
  27. The cardiac cycle consists of contraction and relaxation of what?
    contraction (systole) and then relaxation (diastole) of both atria rapidly followed by the systole and diastole of both ventricles
  28. Factors that regulate heart rate
    • Autonomic nervous system
    • Hormones
    • Ions
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Physical fitness
    • Temperature
  29. What is stroke volume?
    How much blood the heart is pumping
  30. Name the 3 layers of a blood vessel
    • tunica interna
    • tunica media
    • tunica externa
  31. Which layer of the artery allows it to regulate the diameter?
    tunica media
  32. Name the two types of arteries
    • Elastic
    • Muscular
  33. this type of artery is a conducting artery that functions as pressure reservoirs and is larger in diameter
    Elastic artery
  34. this type of artery is a distributing artery that distributes blood to various parts of the body and is medium in diameter
    Muscular artery
  35. Arteries carry blood ???
    away from the heart to tissues
  36. The union of the branches of 2 or more arteries supplying the same region of the body?
    anastomoses
  37. this type of vessel connects to arterioles and venules and allows the exchange of nutrients and wastes between blood and tissue cells
    capillaries
  38. This type of vessel is formed by the union of several capillaries
    venules
  39. This type of vessel is formed from the union of several venules and contain valves
    veins
  40. What generates blood pressure?
    contraction of the ventricles
  41. What determines blood pressure?
    • cardiac output
    • blood volume
    • vascular resistance
  42. Name the 4 processes of respiration
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • transport
    • internal respiration
  43. Name the lobes of the left lung
    • superior lobe
    • inferior lobe
  44. Name the lobe of the right lung
    • superior lobe
    • middle lobe
    • inferior lobe
  45. Name the sections of bronchus
    • Main (primary) bronchus
    • Lobar (secondary) bronchus
    • Segmental (tertiary) bronchus
  46. Name the sections of the respiratory zone
    • terminal bronchioles -->
    • respiratory bronchioles -->
    • alveolar ducts -->
    • alveolar sacs -->
    • alveoli
  47. There are 300 million of these that make up most of the lung volume and the sites of gas exchange
    alveoli
  48. gases flow into the lungs
    inspiration
  49. gases exit the lungs
    expiration
  50. This is pressure exerted by air surrounding the body (760 mm Hg)
    atmospheric pressure
  51. Negative respiratory pressure is breathing in or out?
    breath in
  52. Positive respiratory pressure is breathing in or out?
    breath out
  53. pressure in the alveoli that fluctuates with breathing and always eventually equalizes with atmospheric pressure
    Intrapulmonary pressure
  54. pressure in the pleural cavity that fluctuates with breathing and is always a negative pressure. Fluid level must be minimal
    intrapleural pressure
  55. what keeps the lungs from collapsing?
    Negative pressure inside the lung cavity
  56. Name the 4 types of respiratory volumes
    • tidal volume
    • inspiratory reserve volume
    • expiratory reserve volume
    • residual volume
  57. Diffusion of gases in lungs
    external respiration
  58. diffusion of gases at body tissues
    internal respirations
  59. High H+ causes what?
    low pH = acidic (acidosis)
  60. This is the most lethal genetic disease in North America. Abnormal viscous mucus clogs passageways. Abnormal gene for Cl- membrane channel
    Cystic Fibrosis

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