A&P2 - Test 2
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Name the 5 parts of the electrical conduction system of the heart (in order)
- SA node
- AV node
- AV Bundle of HIS
- Right and left bundle branches
- Purkinje conduction fibers
What is the Lubb sound?
the closure of the two atrioventricular valves at ventricular systole
What is the Dupp sound?
The semilunar valves close at ventricular diastole
A circulatory system must have
- circulatory fluid
- a set of interconnecting vessels
- a muscular pump (heart)
This type of circulatory system is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid
Closed circulatory system
Why is a closed circulatory system used by vertebrates more efficient?
transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells
Name the 3 main types of blood vessels
What is the purpose of arterioles?
carry blood away from the heart to capillaries
What is the purpose of venules?
converge into veins and return blood from the capillaries to the heart
How are arteries and veins distinguished?
by the direction of blood flow - NOT by the O2 content
Blood enters through a what (in the heart)?
Blood going toward the heart flows through what vessels?
Blood traveling away from the heart flows through what vessels?
Which side of the human heart is more muscluar?
- Left side
- Right side goes a short distance to the lungs so it doesn't require as much muscle
What are the important functions of plasma?
- lipid transport
- blood clotting
What is the purpose of hemoglobin?
regulates blood flow and pressure via the release of nitric oxide which causes vasodilation that improves blood flow and enhances oxygen delivery
Blood is characterized into different blood groups based on the presence or absence of
glycoprotein and glycolipid antigens (agglutinogens) on the surface of red blood cells
The process of hemostasis involves:
- Vascular spasm (vasoconstriction
- Platelet plug formation
- Blood clotting (coagulation) – fibrinogen to fibrin
The heart is enclosed and held in place by the
Name the three layers of the heart
The innermost tissue of the heart
the middle (muscle layer) of the heart
the visceral layer of serous pericardium
P-wave represents what?
Atrial systole (contraction)
QRS complex represents what?
Depolarization of ventricular contractile fibers
T-wave represents what?
Repolarization of ventricular contractile fibers
The cardiac cycle consists of contraction and relaxation of what?
contraction (systole) and then relaxation (diastole) of both atria rapidly followed by the systole and diastole of both ventricles
Factors that regulate heart rate
- Autonomic nervous system
- Physical fitness
What is stroke volume?
How much blood the heart is pumping
Name the 3 layers of a blood vessel
- tunica interna
- tunica media
- tunica externa
Which layer of the artery allows it to regulate the diameter?
Name the two types of arteries
this type of artery is a conducting artery that functions as pressure reservoirs and is larger in diameter
this type of artery is a distributing artery that distributes blood to various parts of the body and is medium in diameter
Arteries carry blood ???
away from the heart to tissues
The union of the branches of 2 or more arteries supplying the same region of the body?
this type of vessel connects to arterioles and venules and allows the exchange of nutrients and wastes between blood and tissue cells
This type of vessel is formed by the union of several capillaries
This type of vessel is formed from the union of several venules and contain valves
What generates blood pressure?
contraction of the ventricles
What determines blood pressure?
- cardiac output
- blood volume
- vascular resistance
Name the 4 processes of respiration
- pulmonary ventilation
- external respiration
- internal respiration
Name the lobes of the left lung
- superior lobe
- inferior lobe
Name the lobe of the right lung
- superior lobe
- middle lobe
- inferior lobe
Name the sections of bronchus
- Main (primary) bronchus
- Lobar (secondary) bronchus
- Segmental (tertiary) bronchus
Name the sections of the respiratory zone
- terminal bronchioles -->
- respiratory bronchioles -->
- alveolar ducts -->
- alveolar sacs -->
There are 300 million of these that make up most of the lung volume and the sites of gas exchange
gases flow into the lungs
gases exit the lungs
This is pressure exerted by air surrounding the body (760 mm Hg)
Negative respiratory pressure is breathing in or out?
Positive respiratory pressure is breathing in or out?
pressure in the alveoli that fluctuates with breathing and always eventually equalizes with atmospheric pressure
pressure in the pleural cavity that fluctuates with breathing and is always a negative pressure. Fluid level must be minimal
what keeps the lungs from collapsing?
Negative pressure inside the lung cavity
Name the 4 types of respiratory volumes
- tidal volume
- inspiratory reserve volume
- expiratory reserve volume
- residual volume
Diffusion of gases in lungs
diffusion of gases at body tissues
High H+ causes what?
low pH = acidic (acidosis)
This is the most lethal genetic disease in North America. Abnormal viscous mucus clogs passageways. Abnormal gene for Cl- membrane channel
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