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Cyclops from Odyssey who is the son of Possidan . Told about through a flashback by Odysseus. Represents Nature by walking with a tree trunk as a walking stick and not knowing how to make wine. Opposite of Odysseus who represents culture. Is tricked by Odysseus' metia and is blinded and is told that Odysseus' name is Nobody.
Guest-friendship offered to foreigners or strangers by Greeks. You would feed, clothe and give gifts to your guests. Foreign men and women don't have this in Odyssey while some do. Polyphemos and Circe don't. While the Phacacians have good xenia because they feed and clothe him and listen to his stories
Character in Odyssey. Odysseus ends up at her island when a bag of wind he holds is opened by his men and blows them off course. She turns Odysseus' men into animals. Hermes tells Odysseus to get moly herb which helps him overpower her and turn his men back. She represents dangerous females along with Calypso and Sirens
Sexual Code/Alimentary Code
Men are different from beasts and Gods, because beasts commit incest and eat they're food raw. Yet Gods are better then men, even though they don't cook they're food and commit incest all the time.
- Legendary reformer who created the Spartan system. Dated around sometime in the 10th or 9th centry. Given the Great Rhetra (Spartan Constituation) at the Delphic oracle.
- Was a mixed consititution that dealt with religion, military and political issues. Every aspect of Spartan like was controlled by the government. Including birth
- Spartan men who achieved full citizen shep. Goal was economic equality for all men. Homoioi translates to equals or peers because they all went through rigorous upbringing and military service. Each were given their own Kleros, which was a plot of farmland and a family of slaves
- They're job was just to defend Sparta with their lifes
Slaves to the Homoioi. Could be part of the military but not of the government. Worked the land of Spartans, which allowed the Spartans to worry only about war. Tended to start rebellions because they were enslaved on their own land. Caused Spartans to create extremely good warriors of huge armys
With the population shrinking with men dying in battle, women marrying later, infanticide, and contraception, Sparta needed help with defending their home town. Helots also tended to rebel alot. So the league was formed around the idea of protecting each other. The league was used to defend against foreign invaders and against helot revolution
Instututionalized upbringing and training of a Spartan Boy. From ages 7-14 they were taught basic education. From 14-20 they were to do preliminary military service. From ages 20-60 they active military duty where they lived with men until age 30
Created as a punishment for all of mankind after Prometheus gave them fire stolen form the gods. Name means "Gift of all" because all the gods contributed something to her creation. Shows women as an as a passive receiver in reproduction, not an active participant. All the evils escape her pithos when which means hope only remians
Means Race of Women. The first of these was Pandora. Men on the other hand did not have a creation story. Women are seen as useless and just antoher belly for men to feed. Pithos can refer to her uterus because it stores a seed of a a man. Gives women a passive receptive role
A complete account of an indivdual and the people he meets. Used in the Histories to organize the history of each place. Herodotus includes multiple versions of one story and doesn't privilage one over the other. Most of his logos were from individuals he talked to who's ancestors witnessed it.
Wrote the Histories, which is a ethnographical study of Greece and the areas that surround Greece. First work to take a wide scope of Greek History. Written in prose instead of a poem. Also Herodotus uses his name in the first sentence and states who he is. Both were presented orally at the time .
Fought between the Greece and Persians. Told about in books 7-9 in the histories. Greece wins the war twice in 490 and 480 BCE. Story has racial stereotypes of a autocratic king, fanstasitc wealth, and a passive populace. Compared to the Greece who are moderate
Drew a law code so that the poor would stop suffering. He was chosen because he was part of the aristocracy. He cancelled debts, encouraged growth of olives. Made political power based on wealth and not family. Similar figure as Lycurgus
Every year someone was ostrazized for 10 years from the community based on votes. This is to keep political tense from escalating to violence. Replaced the idea of just driving out a whole family, which was the norm, only the person had to go.
Persian king who instigated the second invasion of GreeceBuilds up the Persian navyGrandson of Cyrus (built up the Persian empire), son of Darius (led the first failed Persian invasion of Greece)His troops were the Immortals
Lead by Leonidas. There were 300 Spartans but hundreds of Thebans, Thespians and helots who were forced to fight. Xerxes was told by a Greek traitor of a mountain pass, showing some Greeks wanted Persian control.
After the Greeks were defeated at Thermopyle, the Athenians fled their city and took up at SalamisThe Persians burned Athens to the ground.Themistocles sent a message to him pretending he had switched sides; he told him the Athenians were fleeing and he should pursue their fleets to win. Xerxes listened and took his ships into the straits, which was a bad move. The Greeks knew the geography and the sea better than the Persians, defeated them. Xerxes retreated to Persia. After the turning point at Salamis, the Persian defeats at Platea (land) and Mycale (sea) gave a definitive end to the Persian invasion.
Festival that honored the god Dionysus. Competition takes place at theater of Dionysus at the base of the Acropolis = the heart of the city. Performed tetrology (group of four) 3 tragedies and a satyr play. Someone would win through jury vote
Wife of Agamemnon. Represents a world of matriarchy where everything is blood retribution. ¡She describes the system of beacons from Troy, names all the places they pass through; convinces the chorus that Troy has fallen, even though she did not witness it. Acts male by speaking publicly, uses authoritave legal speech, boasts over dead Agamemnon, boyfriend is Aigisthus is the the opposite. Hes weak and effeminate man
Orestes is chased by Furies after he killed Clyemnestra. Depicts first law trial in Athens. Trial is held at Areopagus. ¡Athena presides; Apollo defends Orestes, the Furies accuse him.¡Jury is split 50-50; Athena casts the final vote in favor of Orestes
¡It was the traditional enemy of Athens ¡Played as the “alter-ego” of Athens in Greek tragedies¡It allowed the plays to be both temporally and physically removed from the Athenians, so they could better handle the horrible things that were happening. First king was Laius and then Oedipus in our readings
Parents were Laius and Jocasta. Accidently murders his father and marries his mother who he has four children with. Name means swollen foot because he was left at a mountain with his feet bound. He employees human reasoning, and showing how fate and free will is blended by the god
Mutual defense league against Persia Athens was the military leader, other states contributed ships or $$ annually Athens controlled ships + treasury = all the powerSparta is not a memberCompare to Peloponnesian League 454: Treasury moves from Delos to Athens, Delian League à Athenian Empire
Led the Delian League navy in attacks against the Persian encampments in Ionia. Popular in Athens because he located the “bones of Theseus” and returned them to Athens. Had great victories over the Persian forces, captured many ships. He was almost “too good”—if Persia was no longer a threat, cities didn’t see a reason to stay in the Delian League. Impeached for taking bribes (though acquitted); one of his prosecutors was Pericles. Favored good relations with Sparta, opposed further moves toward democracy
Successor of Ephialtes; pro-democrat. One of ten strategoi (generals), but the one with the most influence. 451 – Limited citizenship to those whose parents were both Athenians (anti-aristocratic measure). Athenians now had to marry within their own state to produce Athenian children—fostered sense of separation from the other poleis. Introduced payment for jury service, ensured that as many people would serve as possible (promoted democracy, since aristocrats could afford to serve without pay)
First Peloponnesian War
- An undeclared war, with periods of peaceAthens made alliances with Argos, Sparta’s traditional enemy, and Megara, which had defected from the Peloponnesian League
- 459 - Corinth and Aegina allied against Athens; Athens built the Long Walls from the city to the Piraeus.
- 457 - Sparta joined against Athens454 – Disastrous results for Athens in their campaign against the Persians in Egypt
- 451- Cimon negotiates 5-year peace treaty between Athens and Sparta; Athens leaves their alliance with Argos
- 445 – Athenian land empire collapses; Megarans return to the Peloponnesian League What does the name (“Peloponnesian”) of this conflict tell us about it?
Father of Haemon. Ruler of Haemon and ruler of Thebes after Polynecies and Etheclyes die battling each other. Says that he will not let Polyneices be buried because he saw him as a traitor. Orders Antigone to be executed because she went against his ruling.
Husband to be of Antigone. Wants to be with Antigone, She dies at the end of the play and he kills himself to, leaving Creon all alone
Family that you were born into. Antigone holds her family higher then any other part of her culture, including her ruler. Shows how oddly close the whole family is because she says her brother is more important then her husband or her child.
Brother of Antigone. Was left out to rot after him and his brother fought in battle while the brother was buried. In order to pass on, a person must be buried. Buried by Antigone even if it was against the orders of Creon. Shows how close Antigone was to Polyneices
- Sympathized with women—challenged Athenian ideas about the place of women in societystate vs family (Creon vs Antigone)
- Relevance to fifth century Athenians? relation between free will and fate
- Possibly named a General because of how good Antigone was
Prevalent in latter half of 5th century. At Athens because itt was flourishing at the time, so more people there could afford to pay for education.Not any physical goods, so they were treated with suspicion by some. Rather, they sold lessons in rhetoric, argumentation, and public speaking. Revelvance to 5th century because A time when democracy was growing, and the ability to speak persuasively in the Assembly was increasingly valued. Challenged ideas about the relation between customs/laws (nomoi) and nature, authority, and the gods
- “law” or “custom
- ”What did Herodotus tell us about nomoi?Different societies have different nomoi, and each thinks that their nomoi are the best
- Greek tragediesSophists—do nomoi arise from nature, or from tradition?
Why did construction on the acropolis increase after the Persian Wars?
The Persians sacked Athens and razed most of the infrastructure
- How does building up a beautiful city help the polis?
- Creates jobs Attracts wealthy foreigners Fosters patriotism
- Temple of Athena Parthenos
- Part of Pericles’ building program using Delian League fund—made him more popular in Athens
A person becoming a level up to a God.