Stimulated and Created through individual cognitive process.
thoughts, values, and beliefs, attitudes used to defend the ego.
changes in these factors often threatens the ego and causes stress response.
Major life changes
Need for personal space
violation of human rights
holistic approach of stress management
no distinct measure or definition of wellbeing
mental well being
gather, process, and recall and communicate information
physical well being
optimal functioning of 8 functioning systems
emotional well being
the ability to express and feel an entire full range of human emotions and the ability to control and not be controlled by them
state of mature higher consciousness derived from the relationships made between self and others.
sociology of stress
stress has become part of the social fabric of the 21st century
rapid changes sue to technology and urban developments
internet (enormous amounts of information available.
overwhelming frustration of sensory bombardment
poor boundaries as the result of technology and personal tech(computers and addictions to social networking)
technology is not stress, humans subject ourselves toe the stress of using the devices.
decline in social etiquette
Lack of civility(rude and inpatient actions) due to the changes in availability of instant information.
causes social stress
loss of water quality and lack of access to food sources
race and gender issues
contributes largely to stress related to the social fabric of western culture
mind body phenomena
stress response relates to mind and body
nervous and limbic system-hypothalamus(appetite and emotions)
endocrine-series of glands that secrete hormones that travel through circulatory system that acts on target organs and the major stress gland (adrenal gland)fatigue and failure? Imbalances, serotonin(associated with happiness) and melatonine(not stress hormones)
insomnia- behaviors that include good sleep and decrease in caffeine
amygdala- consciousness and stress and behavior(associated with feelings of fear and anxiety) (responsible of formation and association that are associated with trauma)
psychoneuroimmunology (chapter 4)
linking association between stress and disease.
immune system affected by
not enough data out to fully understand both
neuropeptide are in one chain created by emotional state
subtle energy model-
cell membrane that guards through-proraming through subconscious emotions
psychology of stress (ch5)
how humans deal with problems they face
different human behaviors
Maslow's higher anarchy of pyramid of needs
theory of motivation
Inner resources of coping skills (ch5)
Ways to manage stress effectively:
self actualization-experience of fulfillment
The stress emotions: anger, fear, and joy
reflexes that leaded to feeling that are unresolved lead to stress
social factors: gender
women: feel guilt
men: express anger in overt ways
Mismanaged anger types:
Current stress management programs
creative Anger management and how to change these angry thoughts and feelings into constructive energies that work toward a peaceful resolution
based on actual or vicarious exposure to emotional or physical pain
gut feeling experience before experiencing physical danger
caused of fear:
failure, rejection, death, isolation. loss of self control(causes anxiety and/or depression)
Good stressors (ch 6)
joy and happiness
positive psychology- emotional balance
Emotional expression myths
ventilation: undirected only validates and perpetrates feelings of anger (unhealthy)
Systematic desensitization: ch 6
A process of learning to distress from something in small, manageable stages.
resiliency(self esteem/ self image)
molded at an early age by social experiences, genetic factors, family dynamics, external influences
personality less likely to be changeable, behaviors can be changed rather than personality
characteristics of a resilient person:
compassion and gratitude
purpose in life
Type A & D personality (hopeless/helpless)
not gender specific
co-dependency(associated with acute and chronic stress) react rather than respond to stress.
The result of repeated failures over time
no longer feel they can try things they have control over
low self esteem associated with this personality type.
Associated with unresolved anger, time urgency(impatience), polyphasia(multitasking), Ultra competitiveness, hyper verbal, Manipulative, hyper aggressiveness.
treatment is through the creative release of anger(anger management)
high self esteemsstrong sense of commitment, control, and challenge
can cope with the perceptions of stress resilient
focusing: recognizing the body's signals of upcoming stress(tense muscles, increase breathing)
reconstruction: reinterpreted from negative to neutral or positive perspective)of stress(reframing)
compensation: using strengths as personal abilities rather than fostering helplessness.
high self esteems
handle challenge with a level head
biphasic-integration of right brain thinking (intuition, acceptance, and faith) with left brain thinking (judgment and organization)intellectual flexibility
leave the environment, change the environment, change the attitude
Type R personality (confident, self efficacy, courage, optimism, and creativity)
adventurous spirit with adrenaline
calculate the risk involved
are better able to cope with life events than those who avoid taking risks.
low self esteem
high self esteem
is how you value yourself, accept self, and love self.
buffer against perceived threat
6 pillars of self esteem:
focus on action
practice self acceptance
personal integrity(balance between values and actions)
treating low self esteem
disarm negative critics(self)
avoid should haves
focus on who you are
avoid comparison with others
diversify your interest
Improve your connectedness
avoid self victimization
reassert self(values during times of stress)
season of the soul
time of soul searching and cultivating an internal relationship
discovery exploration of the soul
epiphany or intuition
gaining insight into where you are going
most painful season
letting go to make room for new insights
learning that we are all connected to something much bigger than ourselves and more powerful as a group
time of connection
how you perceive yourself
by-product of ones level of self esteem
critical component for human wellbeing
harmony with self, others or higher power
associated with religion(although related are separate)
common ground but not the same
associated with higher consciousness
integration of :
insightfulness with ones self and others
development of meaningful values system
meaningful purpose in life
mystical aspect: experienced but not measured through research
interconnectedness with religion
Several view points of human spirituality
human consciousness movements
human consciousness movements
buffer of stress
awareness of undesreable behavior change can only happen when there is a desire to change
cognitive restructuring(consciousness to change)
evaluation of the results
behavior modification are not always easy to change when they have existed for a life time
consciousness to/of change in behavior
denial that a behavior contributes to poor helath
passive behavior-intimidation, resentment and victimization
most effective (neither passive or aggressive)
implies intimidation and domination
stages of change
falling back on old behaviors are considered relapsing
part of the process of refining new skills that prevent old behaviors
leads to feelings of victimization
LEATRNING TO SAY no
use "I" statements
assertive body language
personal attack or avoidance
responding rather than reacting
monitor feeling during stressful situation
modify behaviors that occur
avoid situation where multiple situation arise(tackle one issue at a time to avoid overwhelming feeling that cause relapse to old behaviors
means of self exploration throught thoughts and feeling
many forms and approaches
long term effects of journal writing is "personal resolution"
Criteria for effective journal writing
Identify the concerns or thoughts that pose the most frustration and grief and tension
ask yourself what emotions are elicited when these stressors are encountered
allow the writing process to augment you creative processes to further resolution
Tips for journal writing
Label entries: day, date, year
uncensorship: write what comes to mind(don't censor)
spontaneity: free flowing thoughts(doesn't not have to be sentences of paragraphs)
Privacy: find a private place of solitude
private journal: don't share, as to prevent you from censoring your entries out of fear someone will read them.
overcoming writers block: its ok to face the pain of our thoughts and true feeling. with pain comes personal growth.
Writing as a positive technique
Don't use journaling if it does not produce a peaceful resolution(seek other coping techniques)
Use journaling to encourage not discourage: use it for soul searching, avoid turning thoughts inward
paralysis by analysis: avoid over expression of thoughts to the depth that awareness gets fogged. Allow it to give you a wide perspective of self in environment.
benefits of journal writing
helps relieve the stress of medical conditions
assists with military family stress
decreases cholesterol and BP levels
self discovery through active awareness through journaling
promotes psychological catharsis
through the expression of thoughts, values and perceptions are able to work things out on paper
emptying process-stress management technique through spirituality
Expression of thoughts, feelings, memories, and ideas in written form, either prose or poetry, to increase self-awareness.
creative use of art to create non verbal expression and communication of thoughts and feelings that lead to personal growth
details have relevant meaning at unconscious level
varity of colors provide specific meaning to specific thoughts and expressions of feelings
art therapy themes
Art therapy images:
Draw something that represents you
draw two fantasy animals
close your eyes and draw a line on the paper
draw you r body part that needs special attention
draw a perfect image
draw how you feel right now
draw a dream image
art therapy: meaning of colors (ch 12)
orange-life change(big or small)
red-passionate, emotional peaks(anger or compassion)
blue and green-happiness and joy(creativity)
purple: highly spiritual, unconditional love
black-personal empowerment and also fear or grief or despair
white: fear, avoidance, cover-up, or hope
brown- stability and groundedness
gray- ambiguity and uncertainty
Type of humor where someone or something is made fun of. Self parody is thought to be the best type of stress reducer.
Written or dramatic type of parody.
EX: Humor in Shrek movie
The use of physical farce to generate laughs
EX: pie in the face, getting slapped with a banana peel
Absurd/ nonsense humor
two or more concepts are joined to create something absurd, stupid or Ludacris
EX: farside cartoons.
wordplay where expression has two meanings
EX: Disney movies with two meanings where kids and adults can enjoy two different concepts.
humor that is based on the fear of death.
EX: scary Movie
when two ideas come together they express a meaning that is opposite if the expected outcome.
clever and esoteric wit that involves double extenders (words with more than one meaning)
vulgar, ruthless descriptions of bodily functions.
to tear flesh
figurative yet accurate descriptions of persons etc.
more than one person laughing at the same thing, all agreeing to its humor
life of the party
class clown, one who gets all the laughs
professionals whose careers are to be funny(comedians) or to write jokes
one who can laugh at their own foibles, and mistakes and enjoy being human
an adaptive coping mechanism that liberates the ego
come from laughter and have a positive effect on the immune system
souls weapon in the fight against self preservation
laughter and tears
responses to frustration and exaustion
strengthen the integrity of the immune system
augment the mind- body relationship and influences the body's physiology, restoring and possibly healing.
don't take life to seriously
find one humorous thing a day
improve imagination and creativity
read more books
play with children
start a joke swap with friends
hyperexagerate when telling a story
build a humor library
visit humor venues(comedy club)
improve self esteem
access humor network
when humor happens at the expense of someone else in mockery or ridicule
aggressive based humor
defines and maintains ego boundaries
EX: Be different like everybody else.
when two concepts join in our thoughts that don't make sense
combine humor and creativity
humor right brain function
release/ Relief humor theory
people laugh because they need to release nervous sexual energy built up from repressed thoughts
EX: Cocaine addiction is Gods way of saying you make too much money.