Stress Crisis and Coping Midterm

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Stress Crisis and Coping Midterm
2015-10-26 10:43:15
Nature Stress

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  1. Stress
    Experience of a perceived threat(real or imagined that effects ones mental and  physical health. (good and bad)
  2. Good stress
    Motivation to optimal level of performance or health
  3. new stress
    information that is sensory stimulation that is perceived as unimportant
  4. (di)stress
    unfavorable or threatening stress that is interpretation of an even that promptes continued emotions of fear or anger(
  5. Acute stress
    intense and short in duration
  6. chronic stress
    less intense as acute stress but lingers for an extended period of time.
  7. Stressor
    situation or circumstance that is perceived to be a threat. (real or imagined.)
  8. bio ecological factor
    trigger stress responses(outside of our conscious thought( sunlight, electromagnetic fields, flashes)
  9. Psycho interpersonal influenced stressors
    • Stimulated and Created through individual cognitive process. 
    • thoughts, values, and beliefs, attitudes used to defend the ego.
    • changes in these factors often threatens the ego and causes stress response.
  10. Social influences:
    • Major life changes
    • Need for personal space
    • financial hardship
    • relocation
    • cultural assimilation
    • technology
    • violation of human rights
    • socioeconomic
  11. holistic approach of stress management
  12. insomnia
  13. hormones
  14. well being
    • no distinct measure or definition of wellbeing
    • holistic concept
    • multidimentional
  15. mental well being
    gather, process, and  recall and communicate information
  16. physical well being
    optimal functioning of 8 functioning systems
  17. emotional well being
    the ability to express and feel an entire full range of human emotions and the ability to control and not be controlled by them
  18. spiritual
    state of mature higher consciousness derived from the relationships made between self and others.
  19. sociology of stress
    • stress has become part of the social fabric of the 21st century
    • rapid changes sue to technology and urban developments
    • internet (enormous amounts of information available.
  20. Techno stress
    • overwhelming frustration of sensory bombardment
    • poor boundaries as the result of technology and personal tech(computers and addictions to social networking)
    • technology is not stress, humans subject ourselves toe the stress of using the devices.
  21. decline in social etiquette
    • Lack of civility(rude and inpatient actions) due to the changes in availability of instant information.
    • causes social stress
  22. environmental disconnect
    loss of water quality and lack of access to food sources
  23. race and gender issues
    contributes largely to stress related to the social fabric of western culture
  24. physiological stress
    • mind body phenomena
    • stress response relates to mind and body
    • nervous and limbic system-hypothalamus(appetite and emotions)
    • endocrine-series of glands that secrete hormones that  travel through circulatory system that acts on target organs and the major stress gland (adrenal gland)fatigue and failure? Imbalances, serotonin(associated with happiness) and melatonine(not stress hormones)
    • insomnia- behaviors that include good sleep and decrease in caffeine
    • immune-
    • amygdala- consciousness and stress and behavior(associated with feelings of fear and anxiety) (responsible of formation and association that are associated with trauma)
  25. psychoneuroimmunology (chapter 4)
    • linking association between stress and disease.
    • immune system affected by
    • not enough data out to fully understand both
    • genitive predisposition
    • energy medicine- neuropeptide are in one chain created by emotional state
    • subtle energy model- cell membrane that guards through-proraming through subconscious emotions
  26. psychology of stress (ch5)
    • theory of
    • how humans deal with problems they face
    • different human behaviors
    • Maslow's higher anarchy of pyramid of needs
    • theory of motivation
  27. Inner resources of coping skills (ch5)
    • Ways to manage stress effectively:
    • self actualization-experience of fulfillment
    • self awareness
    • self acceptance
  28. The stress emotions: anger, fear, and joy
    • survival emotions
    • reflexes that leaded to feeling that are unresolved lead to stress
  29. social factors: gender
    • women: feel guilt
    • men: express anger in overt ways
  30. Mismanaged anger types:
    • somatizer
    • self-punisher
    • exploder
    • under hander
  31. Current stress management programs
    creative Anger management and how to change these angry thoughts and feelings into constructive energies that work toward a peaceful resolution
  32. fear
    • based on actual or vicarious exposure to emotional or physical pain
    • gut feeling experience before experiencing physical danger
    • caused of fear:
    • failure, rejection, death, isolation. loss of self control(causes anxiety and/or depression)
  33. Good stressors (ch 6)
    • joy and happiness
    • positive psychology- emotional balance
    • emotional desensitization
  34. Emotional expression myths
    ventilation: undirected only validates and perpetrates feelings of anger (unhealthy)
  35. Systematic desensitization: ch 6
    A process of learning to distress from something in small, manageable stages.
  36. personality types
    • resiliency(self esteem/ self image)
    • molded at an early age by social experiences, genetic factors, family dynamics, external influences
    • personality less likely to be changeable, behaviors can be changed rather than personality
  37. resiliency
    characteristics of a resilient person:

    • positivity
    • creativity
    • compassion and gratitude
    • self care
    • humor
    • purpose in life
  38. Type A & D personality (hopeless/helpless)
    • not gender specific
    • co-dependency(associated with acute and  chronic stress) react rather than respond to stress.
    • The result of repeated failures over time
    • no longer feel they can try things they have control over
    • low self esteem associated with this personality type.
    • Associated with unresolved anger, time urgency(impatience), polyphasia(multitasking), Ultra competitiveness, hyper verbal, Manipulative, hyper aggressiveness.

    treatment is through the creative release of anger(anger management)
  39. Hardy personality
    • stress resistant
    • high self esteems
    • strong sense of commitment, control, and challenge
    • can cope with the perceptions of stress resilient
  40. Hardiness skills:
    • focusing: recognizing the body's signals of upcoming stress(tense muscles, increase breathing)
    • reconstruction: reinterpreted from negative to neutral or positive perspective)of stress(reframing)
    • compensation: using strengths as personal abilities rather than fostering helplessness.
  41. survivor personality
    • stress resistant
    • high self esteems
    • handle challenge with a level head
    • biphasic-integration of right brain thinking (intuition, acceptance, and faith) with left brain thinking (judgment and organization)
    • intellectual flexibility
    • leave the environment, change the environment, change the attitude
  42. sensation seeker
    • Type R personality (confident, self efficacy, courage, optimism, and creativity)
    • adventurous spirit with adrenaline
    • calculate the risk involved
    • are better able to cope with life events than those who avoid taking risks.
  43. low self esteem
    attracts stress
  44. high self esteem
    stress resistant
  45. self esteem
    • is how you value yourself, accept self, and love self.
    • buffer against perceived threat
    • 6 pillars of self esteem:
    • focus on action
    • live consciously
    • practice self acceptance
    • self responsibility
    • assertiveness
    • living powerfully
    • personal integrity(balance between values and actions)
  46. treating low self esteem
    • disarm negative critics(self)
    • positive reinformcement
    • avoid should haves
    • focus on who you are
    • avoid comparison with others
    • diversify your interest
    • Improve your connectedness
    • avoid self victimization
    • reassert self(values during times of stress)
  47. centering
    • Autumn season
    • season of the soul
    • time of soul searching and cultivating an internal relationship
    • discovery exploration of the soul
  48. grounding
    • spring season
    • eureka moment
    • epiphany or intuition
    • gaining insight into where you are going
  49. emptying
    • winter:
    • cleansing season
    • most painful season
    • cold waterfall
    • letting go to make room for new insights
  50. connecting
    • Summer season:
    • learning that we are all connected to something much bigger than ourselves and more powerful as a group
    • time of connection
  51. self image
    • how you perceive yourself
    • by-product of ones level of self esteem
  52. human spirituality
    • critical component for human wellbeing
    • illusive concept
    • harmony with self, others or higher power
    • associated with religion(although related are separate)
    • common ground but not the same
    • associated with higher consciousness
    • integration of :
    • insightfulness with ones self and others
    • development of meaningful values system
    • meaningful purpose in life
    • mystical aspect: experienced but not measured through research
    • interconnectedness with religion
  53. Several view points of human spirituality
    human consciousness movements
    • psychology
    • theology
    • physiology
    • sociology
    • physics
    • medicine
  54. human consciousness movements
    buffer of stress
  55. Coping strategies
  56. Cognitive restructuring
    • awareness of undesreable behavior change can only happen when there is a desire to change
    • cognitive restructuring(consciousness to change)
    • behavior substitution
    • evaluation of the results
  57. reframing
  58. behavior modification
    • behavior modification are not always easy to change when they have existed for a life time
    • consciousness to/of change in behavior
    • denial that a behavior contributes to poor helath
  59. passive behavior-intimidation, resentment and victimization
    • intimidation
    • resentment
    • victimization
  60. assertive behavior
    • most effective (neither passive or aggressive)
    • diplomatic
    • tolerant
  61. aggressive behavior
    implies intimidation and domination
  62. stages of change
    • falling back on old behaviors are considered relapsing
    • part of the process of refining new skills that prevent old behaviors
  63. passive aggressive
    leads to feelings of victimization
  64. assertiveness skills
    • use "I" statements
    • eye contact
    • assertive body language
    • peaceful disagreement
    • avoiding manipulation
    • personal attack or avoidance
    • responding rather than reacting
    • monitor feeling during stressful situation
    • modify behaviors that occur
    • avoid situation where multiple situation arise(tackle one issue at a time to avoid overwhelming feeling that cause relapse to old behaviors
  65. Journal writing
    • means of self exploration throught thoughts and feeling
    • poem writing
    • many forms and approaches
    • long term effects of journal writing is "personal resolution"
  66. Criteria for effective journal writing
    • Identify the concerns or thoughts that pose the most frustration and grief and tension
    • ask yourself what emotions are elicited when these stressors are encountered
    • allow the writing process to augment you creative processes to further resolution
  67. Tips for journal writing
    • Centering: relaxation
    • Label entries: day, date, year
    • uncensorship: write what comes to mind(don't censor)
    • spontaneity: free flowing thoughts(doesn't not have to be sentences of paragraphs)
    • Privacy: find a private place of solitude
    • private journal: don't share, as to prevent you from censoring your entries out of fear someone will read them.
    • overcoming writers block: its ok to face the pain of our thoughts and true feeling. with pain comes personal growth.
  68. Writing as a positive technique
    • Don't use journaling if it does not produce a peaceful resolution(seek other coping techniques)
    • Use journaling to encourage not discourage: use it for soul searching, avoid turning thoughts inward
    • paralysis by analysis: avoid over expression of thoughts to the depth that awareness gets fogged.  Allow it to give you a wide perspective of self in environment.
  69. benefits of journal writing
    • helps relieve the stress of medical conditions
    • assists with military family stress
    • decreases cholesterol and BP levels
  70. Trans-psychological
    • self discovery through active awareness through journaling
    • promotes psychological catharsis
    • through the expression of thoughts, values and perceptions are able to work things out on paper
    • emptying process-stress management technique through spirituality
  71. Coping strategy
    Expression of thoughts, feelings, memories, and ideas in written form, either prose or poetry, to increase self-awareness.
  72. art therapy
    • creative use of art to create non verbal expression and communication of thoughts and feelings that lead to personal growth
    • details have relevant meaning at unconscious level
    • varity of colors provide specific meaning to specific thoughts and expressions of feelings
  73. art therapy themes
    • Art therapy images:
    • Draw something that represents you
    • draw two fantasy animals
    • close your eyes and draw a line on the paper
    • Healing Images:
    • draw yourself
    • draw you r body part that needs special attention
    • Mental Images:
    • draw a perfect image
    • draw how you feel right now
    • draw a dream image
  74. art therapy: meaning of colors (ch 12)
    • orange-life change(big or small)
    • red-passionate, emotional peaks(anger or compassion)
    • yellow-positive energy
    • blue and green-happiness and joy(creativity)
    • purple: highly spiritual, unconditional love
    • black-personal empowerment and also fear or grief or despair
    • white: fear, avoidance, cover-up, or hope
    • brown- stability and groundedness
    • gray- ambiguity and uncertainty
  75. Parody Humor
    Type of humor where someone or something is made fun of. Self parody is thought to be the best type of stress reducer.
  76. Satire
    Written or dramatic type of parody.

    EX: Humor in Shrek movie
  77. Slapstick
    • The use of physical farce to generate laughs
    • EX: pie in the face, getting slapped with a banana peel
  78. Absurd/ nonsense humor
    two or more concepts are joined to create something absurd, stupid or Ludacris

    EX: farside cartoons.
  79. double entender
    • wordplay where expression has two meanings
    • EX: Disney movies with two meanings where kids and adults can enjoy two different concepts.
  80. black humor
    • humor that is based on the fear of death.
    • EX: scary Movie
  81. irony
    when two ideas come together they express a meaning that is opposite if the expected outcome.
  82. dry humor
    clever and esoteric wit that involves double extenders (words with more than one meaning)
  83. bathroom humor
    vulgar, ruthless descriptions of bodily functions.
  84. sarcasm
    • to tear flesh
    • figurative yet accurate descriptions of persons etc.
  85. conventional
    more than one person laughing at the same thing, all agreeing to its humor
  86. life of the party
    class clown, one who gets all the laughs
  87. creative
    professionals whose careers are to be funny(comedians) or to write jokes
  88. good sport
    one who can laugh at their own foibles, and mistakes and enjoy being human
  89. humor
    an adaptive coping mechanism that liberates the ego
  90. positive emotions
    come from laughter and have a positive effect on the immune system
  91. humor
    souls weapon in the fight against self preservation
  92. laughter and tears
    responses to  frustration and exaustion
  93. positive thoughts
    strengthen the integrity of the immune system
  94. positive emotions
    augment the mind- body relationship and influences the body's physiology, restoring  and possibly healing.
  95. humor therapy
    • don't take life to seriously
    • find one humorous thing a day
    • improve imagination and creativity
    • read more books
    • write stories
    • play with children
    • go exploring
    • create something
    • start a joke swap with friends
    • hyperexagerate when telling a story
    • build a humor library
    • visit humor venues(comedy club)
    • improve self esteem
    • access humor network
  96. humor therapy
    superiority theory:
    • when humor happens at the expense of someone else in mockery or ridicule
    • aggressive based humor
    • defines and maintains ego boundaries
    • EX: Be different like everybody else.
  97. Incongruity theory(humor)
    • when two concepts join in our thoughts that don't make sense
    • unexpected outcomes
    • combine humor and creativity
    • humor right brain function
  98. release/ Relief humor theory
    • people laugh because they need to release nervous sexual energy built up from repressed thoughts
    • EX: Cocaine addiction is Gods way of saying you make too much money.
  99. Divinity theory(humor)
    • Belief that humor is a gift from God.
    • adhesive quality that bonds people together
    • component of spiritual well being
  100. creative problem solving