Urinary2- Lepto

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Mawad
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310309
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Urinary2- Lepto
Updated:
2015-10-26 16:54:38
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vetmed urinary2
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vetmed urinary2
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  1. Leptospira causes disease in _________; it is a _________ disease.
    mammals; zoonotic
  2. What are the structural components of spirochetes, like Leptospira? (4)
    periplasmic flagellum, protoplasmic cylinder, outer sheath, insertion disc
  3. What is the most important source of Lepto infection in humans?
    contact with contaminated water
  4. Host in which there is high prevalence of endemic infection, transmission from animal to animal, shedding in urine, and subclinical infection.
    maintenance host- RODENTS
  5. Veterinary species and humans are _________ of Lepto.
    accidental hosts
  6. Describe the pathogenesis of Lepto.
    Entry--> bacteremia--> vascular damage, thrombocytopenia--> renal damage, hepatic dysfunction--> renal colonization, propagation, shedding
  7. What are the virulence mechanisms of Lepto. (3)
    LPS, hemolysins, induction of autoantibodies
  8. How does Lepto cause vascular damage?
    translocation b/w endothelial cells of interstitial capillaries into interstitial space
  9. How does Lepto damage the kidneys? How does this lead to it's shedding in urine?
    migrates b/w and through junctions of tubular epithelial cells into the tubular lumen (from interstitial space); it associates with tubular epithelial microvilli--> shed in urine
  10. Acute renal damage due to Lepto causes _________ inflammation; chronically, inflammation transitions to __(3)__.
    suppurative; lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages.
  11. Tubular degeneration associated with Lepto results from the... (2)
    inflammation and toxin production caused by the bacteria.
  12. The major Lepto serovar in cattle is ________; it causes ________ after colonization in the _________.
    L. hardjo; abortion; uterine lumen
  13. Clinical signs of infection with Lepto in a cow. (5)
    hemoglobinuria, icterus, fever, down in milk, +/- fertility
  14. What findings are present in a bovine fetus that was aborted due to Lepto? (3)
    placentitis, nephritis, pneumonia
  15. 2 syndromes associated with Lepto infection in a calf?
    hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure
  16. Describe the reproductive disease caused by Lepto in hogs. (4)
    uterine colonization, SMEDI, subclinical, mastitis
  17. In young pigs, Lepto causes... (4)
    fever, anorexia, jaundice, hemoglobinuria
  18. Lepto should always be a differential for _________ in hogs.
    SMEDI (stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, infertility)
  19. 3 syndromes caused by Lepto in horses.
    recurrent iridocyclitis (moonblindness), 6 month-term abortion, acute renal failure in foals
  20. 2 syndromes caused by Lepto infection in dogs.
    uremic disease/AKI, icteric disease
  21. Signs of uremic disease caused by Lepto in dogs. (7)
    severe azotemia, hypercalcemia and phosphatemia, glucosuria, proteinuria, active sediment, granular casts
  22. Lepto causes what liver pathology in dogs?
    multifocal hepatic necrosis
  23. Describe the consequences of icteric disease caused by Lepto infection in dogs. (5)
    icterus, hypoalbuminemia, chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, liver failure
  24. How do you diagnose Lepto?
    serology- detect anti-lepto antibodies with Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) [vaccination history- vaccine causes seroconversion]
  25. What is ideal for interpretation of the MAT?
    titers measures 2-4 weeks apart (acute and convalescent titers)
  26. When/how is a single titer interpretation of MAT acceptable for diagnosis of Lepto?
    if titer is >800 with a compatible clinical case
  27. What is a potential red herring for Lepto diagnosis?
    subclinical infection are common in high endemic areas
  28. Histopathologic lesions in kidney with Lepto.
    multifocal to diffuse interstitial nephritis
  29. Is culture useful in diagnosing Lepto?
    no- fastidious, slow growing
  30. Animals develop _________ immunity, primarily against the _______, to Lepto.
    antibody; LPS
  31. What are implications for the effectiveness of Lepto vaccines?
    there is little cross-neutralization of antibodies b/w serovars
  32. Describe the treatment of Lepto.
    manage systemic complications (renal, electrolyte, hemostatic), treat infection (dogs- amoxy for active infection, doxy for carrier state)
  33. Antibiotics to treat lepto in:
    Dogs
    Cattle
    Horses
    • Dogs- Amoxy (active infection), doxy (carrier state
    • Cattle- oxytet, ceftiofur
    • Horses- Pen G, oxytet
  34. What species have a Lepto vaccine, and what is the vaccine?
    • Cattle- 5 way
    • Dogs- 4-way
  35. Vaccine cattle for Lepto if...
    share a premises with horses.
  36. Is there scientific evidence that Lepto vaccines cause more reactions in dogs than other vaccines?
    no

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