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Leptospira causes disease in _________; it is a _________ disease.
What are the structural components of spirochetes, like Leptospira? (4)
periplasmic flagellum, protoplasmic cylinder, outer sheath, insertion disc
What is the most important source of Lepto infection in humans?
contact with contaminated water
Host in which there is high prevalence of endemic infection, transmission from animal to animal, shedding in urine, and subclinical infection.
maintenance host- RODENTS
Veterinary species and humans are _________ of Lepto.
Describe the pathogenesis of Lepto.
Entry--> bacteremia--> vascular damage, thrombocytopenia--> renal damage, hepatic dysfunction--> renal colonization, propagation, shedding
What are the virulence mechanisms of Lepto. (3)
LPS, hemolysins, induction of autoantibodies
How does Lepto cause vascular damage?
translocation b/w endothelial cells of interstitial capillaries into interstitial space
How does Lepto damage the kidneys? How does this lead to it's shedding in urine?
migrates b/w and through junctions of tubular epithelial cells into the tubular lumen (from interstitial space); it associates with tubular epithelial microvilli--> shed in urine
Acute renal damage due to Lepto causes _________ inflammation; chronically, inflammation transitions to __(3)__.
suppurative; lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages.
Tubular degeneration associated with Lepto results from the... (2)
inflammation and toxin production caused by the bacteria.
The major Lepto serovar in cattle is ________; it causes ________ after colonization in the _________.
L. hardjo; abortion; uterine lumen
Clinical signs of infection with Lepto in a cow. (5)
hemoglobinuria, icterus, fever, down in milk, +/- fertility
What findings are present in a bovine fetus that was aborted due to Lepto? (3)
placentitis, nephritis, pneumonia
2 syndromes associated with Lepto infection in a calf?
hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure
Describe the reproductive disease caused by Lepto in hogs. (4)
uterine colonization, SMEDI, subclinical, mastitis
In young pigs, Lepto causes... (4)
fever, anorexia, jaundice, hemoglobinuria
Lepto should always be a differential for _________ in hogs.
SMEDI (stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, infertility)
3 syndromes caused by Lepto in horses.
recurrent iridocyclitis (moonblindness), 6 month-term abortion, acute renal failure in foals
2 syndromes caused by Lepto infection in dogs.
uremic disease/AKI, icteric disease
Signs of uremic disease caused by Lepto in dogs. (7)
severe azotemia, hypercalcemia and phosphatemia, glucosuria, proteinuria, active sediment, granular casts
Lepto causes what liver pathology in dogs?
multifocal hepatic necrosis
Describe the consequences of icteric disease caused by Lepto infection in dogs. (5)
icterus, hypoalbuminemia, chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, liver failure
How do you diagnose Lepto?
serology- detect anti-lepto antibodies with Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) [vaccination history- vaccine causes seroconversion]
What is ideal for interpretation of the MAT?
titers measures 2-4 weeks apart (acute and convalescent titers)
When/how is a single titer interpretation of MAT acceptable for diagnosis of Lepto?
if titer is >800 with a compatible clinical case
What is a potential red herring for Lepto diagnosis?
subclinical infection are common in high endemic areas
Histopathologic lesions in kidney with Lepto.
multifocal to diffuse interstitial nephritis
Is culture useful in diagnosing Lepto?
no- fastidious, slow growing
Animals develop _________ immunity, primarily against the _______, to Lepto.
What are implications for the effectiveness of Lepto vaccines?
there is little cross-neutralization of antibodies b/w serovars
Describe the treatment of Lepto.
manage systemic complications (renal, electrolyte, hemostatic), treat infection (dogs- amoxy for active infection, doxy for carrier state)
Antibiotics to treat lepto in:
- Dogs- Amoxy (active infection), doxy (carrier state
- Cattle- oxytet, ceftiofur
- Horses- Pen G, oxytet
What species have a Lepto vaccine, and what is the vaccine?
Vaccine cattle for Lepto if...
share a premises with horses.
Is there scientific evidence that Lepto vaccines cause more reactions in dogs than other vaccines?
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