Repro2- Mare BSE

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Repro2- Mare BSE
2015-10-28 22:33:25
repro2 vetmed

vetmed repro2
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  1. Why is palpation of the uterus sometimes more difficult in a mare than a cow?
    the broad ligament is attached to the dorsal aspect of the uterus
  2. How do you know you've reached the end of the uterine horn with your endoscope?
    utero-tubule junction (UTJ)
  3. What are the requirements for good vulvular conformation? (3)
    vertical position (90┬░), vulvar lip apposition, 2/3 of vulva below ischium
  4. What is the first barrier for contamination of the uterus?
  5. What is the second barrier for contamination of the uterus?
    vaginal sphincter
  6. What is the third barrier for contamination of the uterus?
  7. Why is it important that the vagina have a collapsed lumen?
    pneumovagina predisposes to uterine infection
  8. Describe the normal cervix of a mare. (3)
    longitudinal folds only, thin mucus during estrus, thick mucus during diestrus
  9. In mares, luteolysis is a ________ process.
  10. Describe luteoysis in a mare.
    uterus releases PGF, which enters systemic circulation--> eventually reaches ovarian a. through systemic circulation--> luteolysis
  11. Why is the isthmus of the oviduct significant in a mare?
    sperm reservoir- prevents premature capacitation and increases sperm lifespan until ovulation (you can breed a mare a few days before she ovulates if conditions and sperm are ideal)
  12. How big is a pre-ovulatory follicle in a mare?
  13. What is the absence of an ovulation fossa on the ovary almost pathognomonic for?
    granulosa cell tumor
  14. The equine estrous cycle is controlled by the ________, which secretes _______ seasonally; horses are _________ breeders.
    pineal gland; melatonin; long-day
  15. When does puberty occur in mares?
    second spring (ponies mature earlier)
  16. When are mares in anestrus? When is breeding season?
    • Anestrus- winter
    • Breeding season- april to october
  17. Transition from anestrus to diestrus is _________ activation of the ________.
    gradual; HPO axis
  18. During the transitional period b/w anestrus and estrus, there is a gradual increase in ________ and relatively low _______ levels.
    FSH; LH
  19. What do you see on US of the ovary during the transitional period?
    honeycomb appearance- growth of many follicles
  20. Describe ovarian activity during the transitional period.
    growth of several follicles--> follicle regression without ovulation
  21. The first ovulation of the year occurs when...
    pre-ovulatory (>35mm) follicle develops and produces high estrogen levels--> pituitary store of LH thus increases--> LH surge and fertile ovulation
  22. The average length of a mare's cycle is ________; each phase lasts...
    21 days; follicular phase 4-7 days, luteal phase 14-15 days
  23. How many follicular waves does a mare have during her cycle?
    one or two
  24. On what day of the cycle is PGF released rom the uterus?
    day 14
  25. If a diestrus ovulation occurs before day 10, then...
    both the estrus CL and the diestrus CL will respond to naturally released PGF (on day 14)--> no effect on cycle length
  26. When does diestrus ovulation cause prolonged diestrus and why?
    diestrus ovulation occurs after day 10 of the cycle--> still in refractory period when PGF is released on day 14--> does not lyse (can correct with lutylase shot)
  27. When is the maximal progesterone production during the cycle?
    day 6
  28. Shortened diestrus can be caused by _________ because...
    acute endometritis; PG is an inflammatory mediator--> premature release--> short cycle
  29. Prolonged diestrus can be caused by... (2)
    chronic damage to the endometrium, diestrus ovulation after day 10
  30. How long does the embryo stay in the oviduct after fertilization?
    5-6 days (then enters uterus as blastocyst)
  31. What is the focus of the mare BSE?
    determining future reproductive potential or causes of infertility
  32. At what points in the cycle is the equine uterus toned and flaccid?
    firm during diestrus, flaccid during estrus [opposite of cows]
  33. When is the only time edema in the uterus is normal?
    during estrus
  34. What hormone is immunosuppressive? What hormone can help the mare to clear a minor bacterial growth in the uterus?
    • immunosuppressive: progesterone
    • help clear infection: estrogen (such as during estrus)
  35. With negative culture growth and positive neutrophils presence on cytology, what is the diagnostic determination?
    inflammation may be caused by pathogen that swabbing has missed; further diagnostic work is indicated (maybe endoscopy to look for focal areas of infection)
  36. [Kenny-Doig grading system for mares] With category I, changes are _________ and future foaling rate is _________.
    absent; >80%
  37. [Kenny-Doig grading system for mares] With category IIa, changes are _________ and future foaling rate is _________.
    mild; 50-80%
  38. [Kenny-Doig grading system for mares] With category IIb, changes are _________ and future foaling rate is _________.
    moderate; 10-50%
  39. [Kenny-Doig grading system for mares] With category III, changes are _________ and future foaling rate is _________.
    severe; <10%