MDT 6-1

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MDT 6-1
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2015-10-27 16:40:03
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MDT 6-1
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  1. an enzyme present in high concentration in the liver and measuredto assess liver function; formerly called SGPT
    alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
  2. the most abundant protein in normal plasma; a homogeneous group of plasma proteins that aremade in the liver and help maintain osmotic balance
    albumins
  3. an enzyme widely distributed in the body, especially in the liver and bone
    alkaline phosphatase (ALP or AP)
  4. a chemical substance that is the subject of chemical analysis
    analyte
  5. a negatively charged ion
    anion
  6. an enzyme present in many tissues, including cardiac, muscle, and liver,and measured to assess liver function; formerly called SGOT
    aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
  7. a product formed in the liver from the breakdown of hemoglobin
    bilirubin
  8. a test measuring urea nitrogen in blood
    blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  9. a peptide hormone released primarily from the ventricles of the heart and used as a marker for cardiac function
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
  10. disease of the heart and blood vessels resulting from a variety of causes
    cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  11. a positively charged ion
    cation
  12. a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart; also called coronary artery disease (CAD)
    coronary heart disease (CHD
  13. one of the acute phase proteins found in plasma in inflammation
    C-reactive protein (CRP)
  14. an enzyme present in large amounts in brain tissue and heart and skeletal muscle and a formof which is measured to aid in diagnosing heart attack
    creatine kinase (CK)
  15. a breakdown product of creatine that is normally excreted in the urine
    creatinine
  16. the cations and anions important in maintaining fluid and acid–base balance
    electrolytes
  17. an enzyme present in liver, kidney, pancreas, and prostate, and measured to assess liver function
    gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)
  18. a heterogeneous group of serum proteins with varied functions
    globulins
  19. an estimation of how much blood passes through the glomeruli per unit of time(minute); an estimate of the number of functioning nephrons made by using the rate at which molecules suchas creatinine and urea are filtered by the kidneys
    glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  20. a painful condition in which blood uric acid is elevated and urates precipitate in joints
    gout
  21. high-density lipoprotein fraction of blood cholesterol; good cholesterol
    HDL cholesterol
  22. the tendency toward steady state or equilibrium of body processes
    homeostasis
  23. an amino acid, elevated blood levels of which are associated with increased risk for vascular and cardiovascular disease
    homocysteine
  24. blood calcium levels above normal
    hypercalcemia
  25. excessive amount of fat in the blood
    hyperlipidemia
  26. excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland; excessive secretion of thyroid hormones
    hyperthyroidism
  27. marked decrease in serum albumin concentration
    hypoalbuminemia
  28. blood calcium levels below normal
    hypocalcemia
  29. underactive function of the thyroid gland; abnormally low production of thyroid hormones
    hypothyroidism
  30. an enzyme widely distributed in the body and measured to assess liver function
    lactate dehydrogenase
  31. low-density lipoprotein fraction of blood cholesterol; bad cholesterol
    LDL cholesterol
  32. any one of a group of fats or fat-like substances
    lipids
  33. a hormone that is synthesized by the anterior pituitary gland and regulatesthe activity of the thyroid gland; thyrotropin
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  34. a thyroid hormone, commonly called T4
    thyroxine
  35. the major storage form of lipids; lipid molecules formed from glycerol and fatty acids
    triglycerides
  36. one of the thyroid hormones, commonly called T3
    triiodothyronine
  37. intracellular proteins that are present in skeletal and heart muscle and are released when muscleis injured
    troponins
  38. a breakdown product of nucleic acids
    uric acid
  39. very low density lipoprotein fraction of blood cholesterol
    VLDL cholesterol
  40. The most common specimens for chemical analysis are?
    blood andurine.
  41. tests that are frequently ordered,
    routine
  42. give an example of routine test
    glucose or a chemistryprofile
  43. Tests that are ordered less frequently, such as hormones or certain drug levels refereed to as?
    special tests.
  44. what is measured in Kidney ( Renal) panel?
    • GFR
    • Glucose
    • Creatinine
    • Electrolytes 
    • BUN

    (GG CEB)
  45. what tests are included in Lipid panel?
    • total cholesterol
    • Cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL, VLDL)
    • Triglycerides
  46. what tests are included in Cardiac panel?
    • Troponin
    • BMP
    • CK-MB
    • hs-CRP
    • Homocysteine
  47. what tests are included in LIVER (HEPATIC) panel?
    • Liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, LD)
    • Bilirubin
    • Albumin
    • Total protein

    (TABLE)
  48. what tests are included in THYROID panel?
    • T3
    • T4
    • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
  49. Two major groups of serum proteins are
    Albumins comprise approximately 60% of globulins, about 40%.
  50. The reference range for total serum protein is?
    6.0 to 8.0 g/dL (60 to 80 g/L)
  51. Protein is most commonly measured in ______, but it can also be measured in both ___________, where the concentration is normally low.
    • Serum
    • urine and CSF
  52. The reference range for serum albumin is
    3.8 to 5.0 g/dL(38–50 g/L)
  53. how can you calculate globulin concentration?
    total protein – albumin = globulin
  54. major cations in the body are?
    sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+),
  55. major anions in the body are
    chloride (Cl–) and bicarbonate (HCO3–).
  56. cation and anion with the highest serum concentration is? what are their ranges?
    • Sodium 135 to 148 mmol/L
    • Chloride is 98 to 108 mmol/L
  57. The reference range for serum potassium and bicarbonate are?
    • potassium is 3.8 to 5.5 mmol/L.
    • bicarbonate reference range (measured as total CO2)is 22 to 28 mmol/L
  58. minerals often measured in chemistry profiles
    Calcium, phosphorus(phosphate), and iron
  59. The reference range for ionized serum calcium is?
    4.6 to5.3 mg/dL
  60. Of all the minerals in thebody, _______ is present in the highest concentration
    calcium
  61. The calcium balance is influenced by?
    • vitamin D3,
    • parathyroid hormone,
    • estrogen,
    • calcitonin
  62. Serum iron is normally
    65 to 165 μg/dL
  63. The reference range for serum creatinine is
    0.7 to 1.4 mg/dL (62 to 125 μmol/L).
  64. The reference range for serum glucose is
    70 to 110 mg/dL
  65. Serum triglyceride reference values range from
    10 to 190 mg/dL

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