an enzyme present in high concentration in the liver and measuredto assess liver function; formerly called SGPT
alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
the most abundant protein in normal plasma; a homogeneous group of plasma proteins that aremade in the liver and help maintain osmotic balance
an enzyme widely distributed in the body, especially in the liver and bone
alkaline phosphatase (ALP or AP)
a chemical substance that is the subject of chemical analysis
a negatively charged ion
an enzyme present in many tissues, including cardiac, muscle, and liver,and measured to assess liver function; formerly called SGOT
aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
a product formed in the liver from the breakdown of hemoglobin
a test measuring urea nitrogen in blood
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
a peptide hormone released primarily from the ventricles of the heart and used as a marker for cardiac function
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
disease of the heart and blood vessels resulting from a variety of causes
cardiovascular disease (CVD)
a positively charged ion
a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart; also called coronary artery disease (CAD)
coronary heart disease (CHD
one of the acute phase proteins found in plasma in inflammation
C-reactive protein (CRP)
an enzyme present in large amounts in brain tissue and heart and skeletal muscle and a formof which is measured to aid in diagnosing heart attack
creatine kinase (CK)
a breakdown product of creatine that is normally excreted in the urine
the cations and anions important in maintaining fluid and acid–base balance
an enzyme present in liver, kidney, pancreas, and prostate, and measured to assess liver function
a heterogeneous group of serum proteins with varied functions
an estimation of how much blood passes through the glomeruli per unit of time(minute); an estimate of the number of functioning nephrons made by using the rate at which molecules suchas creatinine and urea are filtered by the kidneys
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
a painful condition in which blood uric acid is elevated and urates precipitate in joints
high-density lipoprotein fraction of blood cholesterol; good cholesterol
the tendency toward steady state or equilibrium of body processes
an amino acid, elevated blood levels of which are associated with increased risk for vascular and cardiovascular disease
blood calcium levels above normal
excessive amount of fat in the blood
excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland; excessive secretion of thyroid hormones
marked decrease in serum albumin concentration
blood calcium levels below normal
underactive function of the thyroid gland; abnormally low production of thyroid hormones
an enzyme widely distributed in the body and measured to assess liver function
low-density lipoprotein fraction of blood cholesterol; bad cholesterol
any one of a group of fats or fat-like substances
a hormone that is synthesized by the anterior pituitary gland and regulatesthe activity of the thyroid gland; thyrotropin
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
a thyroid hormone, commonly called T4
the major storage form of lipids; lipid molecules formed from glycerol and fatty acids
one of the thyroid hormones, commonly called T3
intracellular proteins that are present in skeletal and heart muscle and are released when muscleis injured
a breakdown product of nucleic acids
very low density lipoprotein fraction of blood cholesterol
The most common specimens for chemical analysis are?
tests that are frequently ordered,
give an example of routine test
glucose or a chemistryprofile
Tests that are ordered less frequently, such as hormones or certain drug levels refereed to as?
what is measured in Kidney ( Renal) panel?
what tests are included in Lipid panel?
Cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL, VLDL)
what tests are included in Cardiac panel?
what tests are included in LIVER (HEPATIC) panel?
Liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, LD)
what tests are included in THYROID panel?
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Two major groups of serum proteins are
Albumins comprise approximately 60% of globulins, about 40%.
The reference range for total serum protein is?
6.0 to 8.0 g/dL (60 to 80 g/L)
Protein is most commonly measured in ______, but it can also be measured in both ___________, where the concentration is normally low.
urine and CSF
The reference range for serum albumin is
3.8 to 5.0 g/dL(38–50 g/L)
how can you calculate globulin concentration?
total protein – albumin = globulin
major cations in the body are?
sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+),
major anions in the body are
chloride (Cl–) and bicarbonate (HCO3–).
cation and anion with the highest serum concentration is? what are their ranges?
Sodium 135 to 148 mmol/L
Chloride is 98 to 108 mmol/L
The reference range for serum potassium and bicarbonate are?
potassium is 3.8 to 5.5 mmol/L.
bicarbonate reference range (measured as total CO2)is 22 to 28 mmol/L
minerals often measured in chemistry profiles
Calcium, phosphorus(phosphate), and iron
The reference range for ionized serum calcium is?
4.6 to5.3 mg/dL
Of all the minerals in thebody, _______ is present in the highest concentration