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What causes black stem rust of small grains?
Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici (wheat)
f.sp avenea oats
f.sp secalis rye
How does black stem rust damage its host?
destruction of leaf area
increases the evaporative water loss due to breakage of the epidermis and cuticle of the plant
How is black stem rust controlled?
mostly disease resistant cultivars
Describe Puccinia graminis life cycle
It is heteroecious
overwinters as teliospores
What causes Cedar-Apple Rust?
Describe cedar-apple rusts life cycle
biennial disease cycle (takes two years for completion)
survives has a dikaryotic mycelium in woody galls on junipers during its second year.
How are teliospores disseminated?
from orange gelatinious tendrils that exude from woody galls in the spring during wet weather
How are aeciospores disseminated?
from rostelia (light colored tendril like structures)
they are wind disseminated and infect the needles of junipers in the summer
How is cedar apple rust controlled?
separating apples trees from junipers by more than a quarter mile
growing disease resistant apple varieties
applying foliar fungicide