Phylum Porifera

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Author:
lduran8
ID:
310467
Filename:
Phylum Porifera
Updated:
2015-11-03 02:21:19
Tags:
zoology protista
Folders:
zoology2
Description:
description on the Kingdom Protista which includes the Phylums Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophores, and Platyhelminthes
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  1. Dinoflagellates (3)
    • Flagella for swimming
    • Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic
    • Responsible for harmful algal blooms
  2. Zooxanthellae
    Provide most color for corals
  3. Chanoflagellates
    Unicellular and they live in colonies
  4. What phylum represents on of the earliest diverging lineages of Animalia?
    Phylum Porifera
  5. 2 features that indicate divergence of Porifera
    • Lack true embryonic germ layers
    • intracellular digestion by phagocytosis
  6. General characteristics of Sponges (3)
    • Asymmetrical 
    • Sessile
    • Suspension feeders
  7. Choanocytes
    Flagella that creates current to capture food particles
  8. Amoebocytes
    digestion, food transport, structural support
  9. Variety in sponge shapes (3)
    • Vase-like and upright
    • Encrusting, growing over surface
    • Bore into materials
  10. Spicules (3)
    • Provide support
    • Made of glass and calcium carbonate
    • Prevent other animals from feeding on sponges
  11. Sponge Reproduction
    • Fragmentation
    • Sexual production
  12. What are the oldest living animals?
    Sponges
  13. Characteristics of the Phylum Cnidaria (3)
    • Diploblastic
    • Radial Symmetry
    • Gastrovascular Cavity
  14. Cnidaria lack a brain, so what do they have instead?
    A nerve network
  15. What are Cnidarians primitive eyes made of?
    Pigment cups
  16. Cnidarians can sense up v. down using what?
    Statocyst
  17. Nematocysts
    Stinging organelles of Cnidarians
  18. Cnidocyte
    Has the nematocyst enclosed within it.
  19. Asexual Cnidarian Reproduction 
    Budding that can form large connected colonies
  20. Sexual Cnidarian Reproduction (3)
    • Produce haploid gametes
    • Usually medusa form 
    • May have both forms
  21. Gastrovascular Cavity
    Single oral opening leads to gut and extends into tentacles
  22. Class Scyphozoa (2)
    • Medusa 
    • Solitary and free swimming
  23. Class Anthozoa
    • Polyp form 
    • Sea anemones and corals
  24. What are corals?
    Colonies of polyps that secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton
  25. How do corals get their food?
    Capture planktonic organisms with tentacles (nematocysts)
  26. Where are corals found? (2)
    • Between 30 degrees North & South
    • In water temperatures at or above 20C
  27. 3 Types of Coral Reefs
    • Fringing Reef
    • Barrier Reef
    • Atoll
  28. Atoll
    A circle of reef around an old, sunken island
  29. Class Hydrozoa (3)
    • "Hydras"
    • Polyp form dominates
    • Portuguese Man o' War
  30. Class Cubozoa (4)
    • "Box Jellies"
    • Active, fast swimming
    • Among most venemous species
    • Camera lens eyes
  31. Phylum Ctenophores (2)
    • Radial symmetry & diploblastic
    • Fused Cilia
  32. Positives of Bilateral Symmetry (2)
    • Permits an active lifestyle
    • Leads to cephalization
  33. Cephalization
    Concentration of brain, sensory & feeding structures
  34. 2 types of Protostomes
    • Lophotrochozoans
    • Ecdysozoans
  35. Lophotrochozoans (4)
    • Posses a lophophore
    • Posses a trochophore larva
    • Morphologically variable group
  36. Ecdysozoans (2)
    • Have a cuticle that molts so they can grow 
    • Nematodes, arthropods
  37. Class Cestoda- "Tapeworms" (3)
    • Long flat body
    • No digestive system
    • Primary & intermediate hosts
  38. Characteristics of Phylum Platyhelminthes (4)
    • Triploblastic
    • Acoelomate
    • Branched Gastrovascular system
    • No circulatory/respiratory system
  39. How do Platyhelminthes practice Osmoregulation? (2)
    • Flame cells- osmoregulation and getting rid of wast
    • Protenophridia (tubules)
  40. Platyhelminthes Nervous System (4)
    • Cerebral ganglia
    • Ventral nerve cord
    • Cross connections
    • Tactile receptors
  41. Asexual reproduction of Platyhelminthes (2)
    • Fission
    • Fragmentation
  42. Sexual reproduction of Platyhelminthes
    Hermaphroditic
  43. 3 Classes of Platyhelminthes
    • Turbellaria
    • Trematoda
    • Cestoda
  44. Class Trematoda- "flukes" (4)
    • Parasitic
    • Leaf-like
    • Suckers
    • Body dedicated to reproduction
  45. Life cycle of Class Trematoda
    Use vertebrate animals as primary hosts, but also use intermediate hosts (such as snails) as dispersal mechanisms
  46. Class Turbellaria (3)
    • Free living
    • Marine, freshwater
    • Soft flattened body
  47. Scolex
    Tapeworms use this for attachment to host
  48. Chain of proglottids
    Reproductive units of tapeworms
  49. Taenia sanata
    Beef tapeworm (most common in humans)
  50. 2 types of parasites
    Endoparasites and ectoparasites
  51. Schistosoma trematodes (2)
    • Distributed in tropical countries worldwide
    • Causes chronic illness
  52. Two body plans of Cnidarian
    Medusa and Polyp
  53. How have anemones taken advantage of nematocysts?
    Anemones use nematocysts to attack and kill those from other clones
  54. Types of Lophotrochozoans
    Flatworms, molluscs, annelids
  55. Why are parasites considered so successful? (3)
    • All animal groups include some parasitic representives
    • 1/2 of all animal species are parasites
    • All animals serve as hosts for one ore more parasites
  56. What sex is the dominated life cycle of the Phylum Porifera?
    Female

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