Tölvut. og Samfélag

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Tölvut. og Samfélag
2015-11-04 10:21:23

undirbúningur fyrir próf í tölvutækni og samfélag
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  1. Sector
    A segment of a track in a mass storage system
  2. Cylinder
    A set of tracks at a given position of the read/write heads
  3. Latency time
    The average amount of time required for the desired data to rotate around to the read/write head
  4. Transfer rate
    The rate at which data can be written to or read from a device
  5. Buffer
    A storage area used to hold data on a temporary basics. (for ex. during the process of being transferred from one device to another)
  6. Track
    A circle on the surface of disk platter on which data is written/read
  7. seek time
    The time required to move the read/write heads from one track to another
  8. Zoned-bit recording
    a means of increasing the storage capasity of magnetic disk system
  9. Memory-mapped I/O
    the technique of communicating with peripheral devices as though they were memory cells
  10. pipling
    A means of processing more then one instruction at a time
  11. Instruction register
    Register whose contents is modified upon performing the fetch step of the machine cycle
  12. Stored-program concept
    A technique of recording programs in main memory from where they can be accessed and executed
  13. program counter
    Used by the CPU to keep its place in the program being executed main memory from where they can be retrieved
  14. Controller
    The interface between " a computer" and peripheral device
  15. Protocol
    A governing set of rules
  16. Internet
    A network of networks
  17. IP address
    Identifies a machine on the internet
  18. Tier-1 ISP
    An organization that provides the Internet's communication backbone
  19. Domain
    A name registered with ICANN for identification purposes
  20. Cloud
    A portion of the internet lying outside one's domain
  21. User Interface
    The part of an operating system that communicates with the user
  22. Time sharing
    The act of more than one user using a computer at the same time
  23. Queue
    A storage system in which the first entry in is the first entry out
  24. ROM
    Memory area whose contents canntos be altered
  25. Multiprogramming
    A technique that allows multiprocessing on a computer with a single CPU
  26. Virtual memory
    Extended storage space created by the memory manager
  27. Process
    The activity of executing a program
  28. Assignment statement
    A means of saving the result of computation for future use
  29. Algorithm
    The fundamental concept in computer science
  30. Pseudocode
    An informal notation for representing algorithms
  31. if-then-else statement
    A means of producing different actions depending on a condition
  32. Stepwise refinement
    A divide and conquer approach to problem solving
  33. Loop invariant
    A statement that is true each time a specific point in a repetitive process is reached
  34. High-level language
    A notational system for representing algorithms in human compatiable terms.
  35. parse-tree
    A "pictorial" representation of the grammatical structure of a string
  36. interpreter
    A program that executes other programs written in a high-level language without first translating them into machine
  37. Assembly language
    A step up from machine language
  38. Programming paradigm
    A program development methodology
  39. compiler
    A program that translates other programs into machine language
  40. Grammar
    A rules defining the syntax of programming language
  41. Structured programming
    A methodology that applies well-designed control strucurproduce well-organized software to
  42. Access ISP
    An organization that provides access to the internet
  43. Structure chart
    A means of representing procedural dependencies
  44. Cohesion
    the "glue" that holds a module together
  45. metric
    A means of quantifying
  46. Prototyping
    An approach to software developement in which partial systems are built
  47. Software life cycle
    Develope, use, modify
  48. Component architecture
    A means of constructing software from prefabricated units
  49. Design
    The software developement phase which defines how the system will be build
  50. Waterfall model
    An older, rather rigid approach to software development
  51. Address polynomial
    Used to find entries in a homogeneous array
  52. Pointer
    contains the address at which an entity is stored
  53. Queue
    A FIFO storage structure
  54. Abstraction
    The seperation of internal implementation from external functionality
  55. Array
    A rectangular sorage structure that does not change in size or shape
  56. List
    A general sequential storage structure
  57. Tree
    A storage structure that may contain siblings
  58. Stack
    A LIFO storage structure
  59. Relation
    A structural unit(with rows and columns) in a popular database model
  60. Roll back
    To "unwind" a transaction
  61. Database model
    A conceptual organization of data within databases
  62. SQL
    A popular language that implements relational database operations
  63. Relational operations
    Select, project, and join
  64. Schema
    A road map of a particular database's design
  65. commit point
    The time at which a DBMS guarantees that a transaction's actions will be reflected in a database
  66. DBMS
    Performs database operations requested by application software