Histo - Embryo Packet 1

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Histo - Embryo Packet 1
2010-09-05 10:15:40
sgu vet histo embryology

Veterinary Histology and Embryology Packet 1
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  1. inclusion of a cell are for
  2. hematoxilin dyes what and what color
    nucleus and ribosomes, Blue/purple
  3. Eosin dyes what and what color
  4. what is present in the external leaflet of the cell memebrane which protects the cell from mechanical and chemical change
    glycocalyx coat (glycolipid and glycoprotein)
  5. what is the width of the cell membrane
    8-10 nm in width
  6. what are the 3 layers of the cell membrane at that electron microscope level
    • trilaminar - outer and inner electron-dense lamina
    • electron-lucent intermediate lamina
  7. proteins of the lipid bilayer
    integral transmembrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins
  8. glycocalyx coat
    is present in the external leaflet of the cell membrane, which protects the cell from mechanical and chemical damage.
  9. functions of cell membrane
    • selectively permeable
    • special receptor sites for antigen recognition and immunilogical mechanisms
    • special receptor sites for hormone activated cellular events
  10. Nucleus
    • nuclear envelope w/ chromatin, nucleolus and a nuclear matrix
    • blood cells lack
    • skeletal cells have multiple
    • usually sphere
  11. nuclear envelope
    • two membranes separated by 25 nm perinuclear space
    • outer has ribosomes and is contiuuous with the RER
    • inner membrane is attached w/ proteins to chromatin
    • pores- selective and active transport between nucleus and cytoplasm
  12. Chromatin
    • composed of DNA, basic proteins, histones, and nonhistone chromosomal proteins
    • Barr body in neutrophils (WBC) is prominent in females from the extra X
    • Heterochromatin - basophilic, see in inactive cells
    • Euchromatin - abundant in active cells, lightly stained and uniformly dispersed
  13. Nucleolus
    • spherical and basophilic, prominent cells producing protein
    • loops of DNA w/ rRNA (basophilic) genes
    • involved in the systhesis of rRNA and its packaging into precursor of ribosomes
    • visible w/ lots of protein synthesis
  14. Ribosomes
    • small electron dense cytoplasmic particles
    • single or in groups
    • w/ RER or free
    • mammal erythrocytes don't have
    • produce hydrolytic enzymes that go to lysosomes
    • basophilic (purple/bluish)
  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • network of tubules to support the cell, bounded by membranes
    • Rough ER- protein systhesis, appear basophilic
    • Smooth ER - synthesis of steroid hormones(cholesterol based lipid metabolism) located on its membrane
    • -drug detoxification, Ca release and captureand relaxation of muscles
  16. Golgi complex
    • black network of cisternae
    • parallel membranes bounded by flattened cisternae and associated tubules and vesicles on either side
    • Function- 1. site of accumulation, concentration, and packaging of secretory proteins into membrane bound vesicles (exit by exocytosis) 2. biosynthesis of glyco- proteins and lipids, phospholipids and neutral lipids
  17. Lysosomes
    • membran-bound vesicles w/ hydrolytic enzymes (nucleases, proteases, lipases)
    • enzymes are from the RER > golgi > primary lysosomes
    • phagocytosed material (microorganisms) > secondary lysosome> digested >exocytosis
    • obsolete cellular organelles(autophagy)> secondary lysosome> digested >exocytosis
  18. Lipofuscin
    • age pigment
    • after digestion the contents of the secondary lysosomes are retained as residual bodies
    • undigestable parts
  19. Peroxisomes
    • detoxify ethanol and work in gluconeogenesis
    • abundant hepatocytes and in cells of proximal convoluted tubules of kidney
    • energy derived is for metabolic purposes
    • contains oxidase and catalase ensymes to get rid of H2O2
  20. Mitochondria
    • ATP synthesis, chief source of energy
    • outer and inner membrane- folds of cristae w/ enzymes for oxidative phosporylation
    • has own DNA & ribosomes
    • many in muscle cells
  21. cytoskeleton
    composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, mirotubules, embedded in the cytoplasmic matrix or cytosol
  22. Microfilaments
    • cell membrane activity
    • actin and myosin = cellular contraction in muscle cells
    • beneath the plasmalemma for exocytosis, endocytosis, and cell migratory activity
  23. Intermediate Filaments
    • strength and keeps shape
    • keratin filaments - provide mechanical stability of desmosomes, keratinized epithelium
    • Desmin filaments = muscle support
    • Neurofilaments= nerve cells
    • Glial filaments = astrocytes, neurolemmocytes(schwann cells)
  24. Microtubules
    • movement of organelles, vesicles (secretory granules from centrosomes)
    • maintain cell form, cell division,
  25. Centriole
    • cell division,
    • 9 groups of 3 microtubules in longitudinal and parellel arrangement, stabilizing linker protein between tiplets
  26. Glycogen
    • cytoplasmic inclusion (non-life material)
    • in liver cell and muscle, can be demonstrated by PAS reaction
  27. Lipid
    • cytoplasmic inclusion (non-life material)
    • in adipose tissue cells, can be demonstrated with osmotic aci fixation
  28. Melanin
    • cytoplasmic inclusion (non-life material)
    • in skin, and pigment epithelium of retina
  29. Hemosiderin
    • cytoplasmic inclusion (non-life material)
    • result of hemoglobin degradation
  30. Lipofuscin
    • cytoplasmic inclusion (non-life material)
    • indigested residue of phagocytosis, commonly found in cardiac muscle, liver and nerve cells,
    • aging mainly in neuron and heart cells because of long life
  31. Tight junctions
    • epithelial cells w/ irredular anastamosis ridges (transmembrane protein, arteries and veins) to seal neighbouring cells together in a beltlike fashion
    • barrier to prevent passage of water soluble molecules form lumen to intercellular space
    • selectively permeable
  32. Zona adheren
    • cells help together by transmembrane protein limker and a bundle of actin filaments run parallel to the junctional cell membrane
    • - lining cells of the intestine
  33. desmosomes or Macula adherens
    • transmembrane protein linker plus intercellular electron-dense plaque
    • intermediate filaments are attached to this plaque forming a hairpin loop
  34. hemidesmosomes
    connect the cells from the extracellular matrix protein (similar to the half desmosome)
  35. communicating (GAP) junction
    • permit the direct passage of inorganic ions and other water soluble molecules from cell to cell
    • intercellular space is bridged by interlocking transmembrane proteins of the apposed membrane
    • important - smooth or cardiac muscle
  36. Cillia
    • MOVEMENT: respirator and male(flagellum) and female system
    • surround plasma membrane
    • 9 doublet of microtubules around 2 micorotubules
  37. Microvilli
    • cytoplasmic evagination to increase the free surface for absorption
    • SI - increase surface area, cytoplasmic invaginations
    • no tubules
  38. Stereocilia
    • long rigid, microvilli
    • static
    • sense
    • no tubules
    • hair cells of the spiral organ (corti) of the inner ear
  39. epithelium
    • sheets of aggreagated cells of similar type that cover or line the external and internal surfaces of the body
    • rests on basement membrane
    • protection, absorption, secretion, and diffusion
  40. Basement membrane
    • Lamina lucida: low density, clear area next to the epithelium, syn from epithelium
    • Lamina densa (basalis): electron dense, syn from epithelium and are composed mainly of proteoglycans and a special type of collagen
    • Subbasal lamina: reticular fibers, connects the lamina densa to the subepithelial connective tissue
  41. epithelium is classified by
    • number of layers
    • shape of cell (first layer)
  42. simple epithelium
    single layer of cells resting on the basement membrane
  43. stratified epithelium
    2 or more layers of cells with only the basal cell layer resting on the basement membrane
  44. simple squamous
    lining of blood vessels, pleural and peroneal cavities (mesothelium), pulmonary alveoli, and glomerular capsule

    • single layer of thin, flat and scale-like cells
    • spherical or oval nucleus (bulging)
  45. simple cuboidal
    thyroid gland, collecting ducts of kidney

    single layer of cuboidal cells with a centrally located nucleus
  46. simple columnar
    stomach, intestine, and gall bladder

    tall, narrow cells, nucleus is oval (elongated) and located near the base of the cell
  47. psuedostratified columnar
    trachea and bronchi (ciliated form)

    composed of a single layer of cells, w/ different shape and nuclei locations
  48. stratified squamous
    skin, cornea

    • several layers of the cells with the most superficial cells having a squamous shape
    • keratinzed and non ceratinized forms
  49. stratified cuboidal
    lining the excretor duct of glands

    mainly 2 layers
  50. stratified columnar
    parotid and mandibular gland ducts

    2-4 layers not more than 4 usually
  51. transitional epithelium
    urinary bladder

    • lines hollow organs capable of distention
    • relaxed state: superficial cells are dome-shaped and bulge into the lumen
    • Stretched: reduced to a few layers of flattened cells
  52. glands
    consists of glandular or secretory epithelium and duct system (parenchyma) with a supportive framework of connective tissue (stroma)
  53. classification of glands
    • unicellula or multicellularglands
    • secrete and develop from epithelium
    • endocrine: ductless gland, their secretions are released into intercellular fluid and transport to the site of action by the blood
    • -hormones-blood-receptor cite-organ
    • exocirne: ducts
    • simple or compound glands
  54. simple straight tubular gland
    Large intestine
  55. simple coiled tubular gland
    sweat gland
  56. simple branched tubular gland
  57. simple alveolar or acinar gland
  58. simple branched acinar or alveolar gland
    large sebaceous gland
  59. simple tubulo-acinar (alveolus) gland
    minor salivary gland of oral cavity
  60. compound alveolar or acinar
    parotid gland
  61. compound tubulo-alveolar
    pancreas (most common)
  62. duct system
    • 1. intralobular- striated in salivary gland and intercalated ducts in the pancreas, simple cuboidal
    • 2. interlobular- simple cuboidal
    • 3. lobar ducts- stratified cuboidal or columnar
    • 4. main ducts- stratified squamous
  63. serous gland
    parotid salivary gland

    • produce a thin watery secretion
    • spherical nuclei in center or lower half, apical cytomplasm filled with small secretory granules (zymogen granules)
  64. mucous glands
    • produce thick, viscous (mucin) secretion that form a protective covering
    • stain lightly b/c of mucin
    • nuclei are flat and displaced towards the basal part of cell
  65. seromucous or mixed gland
    mandibular salivary gland

    • have both serous and mucous acini.
    • generally serous cells are located over the mucous acini as serous demilunes (half moon shape)
  66. merocine
    • secretory granules enclosed in a membrane, discard by exocytosis
    • most common
    • RER-golgi-secretory vesicles-surface of cell
    • no cell cytoplasm involved
  67. apocrine
    sweat and mammary glands

    • membrane-bound granule, together with a rim of cytoplasm and plasmalemma, is released for the apex of the cell
    • loss of some cytoplasm
    • secrtion from cell (top surface breaks) -breakdown outside cell-regrowth
  68. holocrine
    sebaceous gland

    • entire cell is released as the secretory product
    • in hair folicles
    • stem cell-cell division-produce secretion,increase in size-cell bursts-loss of cytoplasmic contents
  69. cytocrine
    transfer of melanin pigment from the melanocytes into keratinocytes

    secretory material from one cell is transfers from the one cell to the cytoplasm of another cell
  70. myoepithelial cells
    • are interposed between the secretory cells and basement membrane
    • when contracted these cells force the secretory product into the duct system
  71. connective tissue
    • connects other tissue and provides a framework to support the entire body by cartilage and bones
    • cells- 9 types
    • fibers- collagen, elastic and reticular
    • amorphous ground substance- proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and interstitial fluid
  72. what are the 9 types of connective tissue cells
    mesenchymal, fibroblasts, reticular, adipocytes, pericytes, mast, plasma, macrophages, pigment
  73. mesenchymal cells
    • irregularly shaped w/ multiple processe (+vessels)
    • usually found dajacent to blood vessels
    • most when embryo
    • differentiate into any other type of connective tissue
  74. fibroblast cells
    • most common and responsible for the synthesis of fibers and intercellular ground substance
    • wound repair
    • active: fibroblast has long and branched cytoplasm processes. its nucleus is ovid and euchromatic and its cytoplasm is rich in RER and golgi
    • quiescent resting): fibrocyte
  75. myofibroblast cell
    • fibroblasts that contain actin filament; play role in contraction during wound healing
    • acetelcholine for contraction
    • Autonomic NS
  76. reticular cells
    • stellate-shaped, spherical nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm - produce reticular fibers
    • fine fibers not for healing
  77. adipocyte cells
    • unilocular: adipocytes are filled with large lipid droplets and nucleus is displaced to the periphery (1 big droplet)
    • multiocular: adiposytes (brown fat) have a centrally located nucleus with multiple lipid droplets and high concentrations of mitochondria in cytoplasm
    • -active fat, keeps body warm, babies and hybernation, in neck and abdomin
  78. pericyte cell
    • elongated cells located adjacent to the endothelium lining small blood vessels. contain actin and myosin and have potential to change into other cells and participate in healing process
    • ex-fibroblast
  79. mast cell
    • heparin and histamin production
    • common in loose CT, abundant in blood vessels, large polymorphic, spherical or ovoid cells, contain numerous secretory granules in the cytoplasm
  80. plasma cell
    • spherical or ovoid cells with spherical eccentric nucleus
    • arrangement of chromatin gives nucleus a cart wheel like appearance
    • cytoplasm is intensely basophilic
    • abundant in lymphatic tissue and lamina propria of the GI
    • develop from B-lymphocytes and produce anitbodies
    • lots of RER, ribosomes to produce proteins
  81. macrophages
    • phagocytic cells, derived from monocytes that migrate across the blood vessel walls into the connective tissue
    • large, ovoid or spherical cells that contain cytoplasmic vacuoles and numerous lysosomes
  82. pigment cells
    dermis uterine caruncles, iris, choroid

    cells containing pigment (melanin)
  83. leucocytes
    lymphocytes, monocytes and granulosytes (blood cells)

    migrate through the wall of the capillaries to the connective tissue
  84. collagen fibers
    tendon, ligament, organ capsule

    • most abundant in mature CT and composed of fibrous protein (collagen)
    • strong, flexible, inelastic
    • wavy arrangement
    • healing and strength
  85. reticular fibers
    framework for liver, endocrine and lymphatic organs

    • delicate flexible networks around capillaries, muscle fibers and nerve
    • individual collagen fibrils (type lll colagen) coated with proteoglycans and glycoproteins
  86. elastic fibers
    aorta, muscular arteries, nuchal ligament, pinna, lungs

    • present in structures that require elasticity
    • individaul, branching, or coiled fibers
    • composed of elastin protein covered by glycoprotein (fibrillin)
  87. amorphous ground substance
    cells are fibers of CT are embedded in an amporphous ground substance composed of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans
  88. major types of GAGs (glycosaminoglycans)
    • hyaluronic acid in vitreous body of eye and synovial fluid
    • chondroitin sulphate in cartilage, bone, and large bolld vessels
    • dermatin sulphate in tendons and ligaments
    • keratin sulphate in cartilage and bones
    • heparin sulphate in arteries and lungs
  89. proteoglycans
    formed by covalently linking GAGs (glycosaminoglycans) to a protein core
  90. embryonic CT
    • mesenchymal
    • mucous or gelatinous
  91. adult CT
    • loose or areolar CT
    • dense
    • elastic
    • reticular
    • adipose
  92. special CT
    • cartilage
    • bone
  93. mesenchymal CT
    • is composed of mesechymal cells and amorphous fluid-filled ground substance
    • cell processes contact adacent cells to form a three dimensional network
    • gives rise to various types of adult connective tissue
  94. mucosus or gelatinous CT
    • unbilical cord in embryo and papillae of omasal laminae and reticular fold and bovine glans penis
    • stellate fibroblasts and viscous, gel like amorphous ground substance with collagen fibers
  95. Loose or areolar CT
    • found beneath epithelium (lamina propria, hypodermis) around blood vessels and nerves and in serous membranes
    • ground substance predonimates
    • many scattered cells of various types
    • loose network of fine collagenous, reticular and elastic fibers
  96. dense CT
    • below loose CT
    • mainly composed of thick collagenous fibers and few fibroblast cells
    • dense irregular CT: in capsules of the organs, deep layer of the dermis
    • dense regular CT:in tendons, ligaments, sponeurosis
  97. elastic tissue
    • nuchal ligament and vocal ligament
    • numerous regularly and irregularly arranged elastic fibers
  98. reticular tissue
    • lymphatic organs, endocrine glands, spleen, lymph node, liver
    • stroma(support) and aprachyma(function)
    • composed of numerous reticular cells and a network of reticular fibers
  99. adipose tissue
    • consistes of adipocytes within the loose CT of mesentaries, around blood vessels and nerves
    • white and brown
    • nucleus is pused on side
  100. cartilage
    • consists of chondroblasts and chondrocytes and matrix,
    • lacks blood vessels = does not heal
    • have lacuna
    • always growing
    • different ground substance (mineral & hard)
    • 3 types - elastic, hyalin, & fibrocartilage
  101. chondroblasts
    • oval shaped with a spherical nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm
    • form matrix of cartilage and are found in the growing cartilage
    • functional cell that does not shrink and produces cartilage
  102. chondrocyte
    • located in a lacuna and has a shperical nucleus with basophilic cytoplasm
    • cell fills the lacuna by short cytoplasmic process
    • (resting)
  103. cartilage matrix
    • fibers and ground substance containing proteoglycans and GAGs - chondronectin sulfate, keratin sulphate and hyaluronic acid
    • adhesive molecules - chondronectin and fibronectin
    • matrix shows marked metachromasia
    • lacks vessels
  104. hyaline cartilage
    articular surfaces of bones, nose and trachea

    • chondrocytes occur singly in a lacuna or in clusters called isogenous groups
    • amorphus ground substance is a firm gel-laced with type ll colagen fibers - dark staining GAGs and pale interterritorial matrix
    • surrounded by perichondrium, outer fibrous layer(collagen (fibers and fibroblasts)and an inner cellular or chondrogenic layer (chondroblast)
  105. Elastic cartilage
    • pinna and epiglottis
    • large amount of elastic fibers in ground substance
    • similar to hyaline
    • visible fibers
    • perichondrium = fibroblasts/chondroblasts
  106. fibrocartilage
    intervertibral disks and menisci

    • presence of prominent type l collagen fibers in matrix
    • lacks perichondrium, surrounded by colagen fibers
  107. bone tissue
    • specialized CT w/ intercellular calcified material (matrix) and 3 cell types - osteoblast, osteocytes, osteoclasts
    • organic - soft part of bone, gelatin
    • inorganic - Ca/P hard part
  108. osteoblast
    • columnar or squamous located on surface of bone
    • nucleus in basal region of intensely basophilic cytoplasm
    • secretes osteoids (organic matter of bony matrix) which is subsiquently calcified by the deposition of calcium salts from blood
    • periosteum - fibrous and osteogenic layer
    • cuboidal on surface secretes matrix
  109. osteocytes
    • from osteoblasts
    • lines a lacuna, surrounded by calcified interstitial matrix
    • numerous long processes extend into the canaliculi within the matrix and make contact with adjacent osteocytes
  110. osteoclast
    • large multinucleated cell located in the area of bone resorption or remodeling
    • activated osteoclast has a ruffled border created by extensive infolding of the cell membrane
    • secretes acid and lysosomal enzymes for bone resorption
  111. bone matrix
    • organic matter: containing sulphated GAG's glycoprotein and type l collagen fibers, coursig in a spiral direction
    • inorganic matter: Ca/P are abundant but bicarbinate, citrate, magnesium, K and Na there too
    • Ca/P form hydroxyapatite crystals deposited as slender needles with the collagen network
  112. periosteum
    • fibrous and osteogenic layers (osteoblasts)
    • absent on articular surfaces and attachements
    • outer covering of bone
    • collagen fibers from the fibrous layer ofthe periosteum, tendons and ligaments are embedded in the bone matrix as perforating fibers (sharpey's)
  113. endostem
    lines the marrow cavity with a sinlge layer of squamous cells, osteoblast and osteoclasts
  114. spongy bone
    • delicate bony plates and spicules, which run in various directions
    • interior of the epiphysis
    • no osteons
  115. compact bone
    • osteons(haversian systems), outer and inner circumferential lamellae and interstitial lamellae
    • osteon: central canal surrounded by concentric lamellae, surrounded by cementing substances tha consist of mineralized matrix with a few collagen fibers
    • perforating canals connect the central canals
    • central canal contains blood vessels, nerves and loose CT,
    • concentric lamellae are collagen fibers arranged concentrically around the central canal
    • lacunae containing osteocytes are found between the lamellae
  116. ossification
    • intramembraneous ossification (skull bones)
    • intracartilaginous or endochondral ossification (appendicular skeleton, vertebrall column and bones of the base of the skull
  117. muscular tissue
    • contractibility and produces organized movement on contraction
    • specialized cells are myocytes(muscle fibers or myofibers)
    • cytoplasm(sarcoplasm) is eosinophilic b/c of numerous myofilaments
  118. skeletal muscle
    • striated and voluntary
    • muscles attached to bones of the skeleton
    • multinucleated, strong, quick action
  119. cardiac muscle
    • striated and involuntary
    • muscles of the walls of the heart
    • intercalated discs, strong and quick involuntray movement
  120. smooth muscle
    • walls of most viscera
    • wall of GI, uterus, bladder
    • weak slow involuntary contractions
    • non-striated and involuntary
  121. skeletal muscle
    • myoctes(fibers) elongated cells that range from 10-110um in diameter and 50 cm in length
    • -derived from prenatal fusion of mononuclear myoblasts
    • multiple oval nuclei located peripherally
    • each muscle cell contains myofibrils(thick and thin myofilaments) aligned in a longitudinal direction
    • thick filament- myosin
    • thin filament- actin (troponin, and tropomyosin)
  122. skeletal part 2
    • thick and thin overlap in darker A band (anisotropic), lighter zone in the center (H band) that is bisected by M line
    • thin only: myofilaments are present in the lighter l band (isotropic), bissected by Z line
    • bands alternate for striation
    • sacromere: smallest unit of the contractile apparatus, between 2 Z lines
    • sarcoplasm: smooth ER, glycogen, mitochondria, and myoglobin it is covered by the sarcolemma(cell membrane)
  123. organization of skeletal muscles
    • each fiber surrounded by basal lamina and reticular fibers (endomysium)
    • each bundle of fibers (fascicle) is surrounded by dense irregular CT (perimysium)
    • muscle is surrounded by dense irregular CT (epimysium)
  124. satellite cells
    • spindle shaped cells with heterochromatic nuclei, located adjacent to the myocytes
    • represent inactive myoblasts that can be activated upon injury to initiate some regerenation of muscle fibers
  125. red and white muscle fibers
    • red: slow twitch, smaller and rich in myoglobin and mitochondria
    • white: fast twitch, larger with few mitochondria
  126. cardiac muscle
    • no regeneration = myocardial scar
    • myocytes (fibers) branch at anastomose
    • single nucleus is located in the center of the cell and the sarcoplasm is acidophilic
    • intercalated disks: is present at the junction of the adjacent cells, link adjacent cells mechanically, electrically creating syncitium
    • fine reticular and collagenous fibers surrounds each cardiac muscle fiber
    • myofibril arrangement is similar to that of skeletal muscle
    • striations less prominent
    • purkinje fibers: impulse conducting, central nucleus, surrounded by granular (rich glycogen sarcoplasm), myofibrils are fewer and located in the peripheral portion, modified cardiac muscle for impluse
  127. smooth muscle
    • elongated, spindle-shaped with a single centrally located nucleus and an acidophilic cytoplasm
    • myocytes surrounded by reticular fibers (made from the myocytes)
    • cytoplasm contain numerous thin myofilaments (actin and tropomyosin) few thick (myosin) - not arranged
    • dense bodies: cytoplasm and cell membranse serve as anchor sites for the myofilaments, intermediate bodies further link the dense bodies into a meshwork array
    • numerous vesicles along cell membrane for Ca transport
  128. nervous system
    regulates animal's ability to respond appropriately to changes in its environment
  129. components of the nervous system
    • nervous tissue: neurons and supportive cells (neuroglia)
    • CNS: brain and spinal cord
    • PNS: cranial nerves and spinal nerves
    • ANS: innervates visceral organs
    • Meninges: layers that surround the central nervous system and roots the periphersl nerves
    • cerebrospinal fluid: present in cavities of the brain and spinal cord and in the space within the meninges
  130. neurons
    • structural and functional units of the nervous system
    • composed of nerve cell body(perikaryon) and neuronal processes (axon and dendrites)
    • afferent: receive and transmit info from environment to CNS
    • efferent: transmit info generated in the CNS to the periphery
    • synaptic terminals release neurotransmiters
  131. classification of neurons - multipolar
    • neurons have one axon and several dendrites
    • most common in brain, spinal cord, ANS
  132. classification of neurons - bipolar
    • cells of retina, inner ear
    • neurons have one axon and one dendrite
  133. classification of neurons - unipolar
    • sensory ganglia
    • one axon that bifurcates into central and peripheral branches
    • aka - pseudopolar neuron
  134. nerve cell bodies (perikaryon)
    • nucleus: central, ovid, euchromatic (highly active),
    • barr body: sex chromatin, may be evident by nucleolus
    • eccentrically placed nucleus in the neurons of autonomic ganglia
    • prominent nucleus
    • cytoplasm: chromatophilic substance (nissl substance - aggregation of RER and ribos, not in white matter), neurofilaments( cytoskeleton), microtubules (rapid transportof membrane bound organelles), promient golgi complex (secretes neurotransmitter and neurohormones), numerous mito and lipouscin pigemts
  135. dendrites
    • highly branched to receive numerous synaptic contacts from other neurons
    • cytoplasm similar to cell body w/o golgi
    • dendritic spines on some( gemmules) membrane sac containing dense material
    • synaptic sites: thick band of electron dense material associated w/ plasmalemma, dense material represents protein for postsynaptic activity
  136. synapse
    • sites where contact occurs between 2 neurons or between neurons and other effector cells
    • muscles and glands
    • formed by a presynaptic terminal(telodendron), synaptic cleft(intercellular space), and post synaptic terminal on dendrites (gemmules)
  137. types of synapse
    • axo-somatic (axon with nerve cell bodies)
    • axo-dendritic(axon with dendrite)
    • axo-axonic(axon with axon)
  138. axons
    • long cytoplasmic process from hillock of cell body and ends at terminal branches(telodendrites)
    • cytoplasm- no chromatophilic substance
    • terminal branch ends in the terminal bulb, neurotransmitter molecules are packaged and stored w/in a synaptic vesicle
    • terminal branches- may contain secretory vesiclesthat store neuromodulators(aument neurotransmitter effect) and neurohormones (oxytocin and vasopressin in hypothalamic neurons
  139. neuroglial cells (gliocytes)
    • structure and support
    • CNS: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and ependymal cells, microglial cells are derived from mesoderm wheras other cells are derived from neural ectoderm
    • PNS: neurolemmocytes (schwann cells) myelinate axons and become a satellite cell in ganglia, derived from neural crest
  140. astrocytes
    • largest and most numerous
    • star-shaped with multiple radiating processes that contain glial filaments
    • structural support by binding neurons to capillaries and to the pia mater
    • white matter: long, slender, and moderately branched processes (fibrous astrocytes)
    • grey matter: shorter and highly branched and termed protoplasmic astrocytes
    • processes terminate in an expanson called "end feet" which cover the endothelium of blood vessels within the brain and spinal cord and form the blood brain barrier, electrolyte balance
  141. oligodendrocytes
    few small processes that wrap around the axons in the CNS, producing myelin sheath which provides electrical insulation for neurons in CNS, mostly in white matter
  142. neurolemmocytes (Schwann cells)
    • located around axons in the PNS, and rpoduce myelin sheath
    • sheaths are interupted at the junction of adjacent neurolemmocytes, forming uninsulated sites called nodes of Ranvier
    • myelin sheath between nodes is an internode
  143. microglia cells
    • small elongated cells with elongated chromatophilic nucleus and short irregular processes
    • phagocytic cells from bone marrow, in matter
  144. ependymal cellls
    • ciliated, cuboidal or columnar cells, lining the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord
    • facilitate movement of cerebrospinal fluid
    • choroid plexus epithelium is dervied from the ependymal cells and produce cerebrospinal fluid
    • lining of spinal cord
  145. ganglia
    • aggreagtes of nerve cell bodies alon the course of perifpheral nerves, support connective tissue
    • nerve cell bodies outside of CNS
  146. sensory ganglia
    • associated with cranial nerves (cranial ganglia) or with the dorsal root spinal nerve(spinal ganglia)
    • Unipolar: neurons with a single axon, bifurcating into central and peripheral banches
    • Ganglionic gliocytes(satellite cells): tightly encapsulates cell body
  147. PNS
    • nerve: axon envelopedby neurolemmocytes and surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue fibers, endoneurium
    • nerve fibers organized into fascicles enveloped by collagenous connective tissue Perineurium
    • Epineurium: multiple fascicles of a nerve are bound together by connective tissue (outer dense irregular)
    • afferent and efferent neurons
    • afferent to grey matter
    • efferent away from grey matter
  148. autonomic ganglia
    multipolar nerve cell bodies along the course of autonomic nerves, eccentric nuclei, marginally distrubted Nissle granules and are loosely encapsulated by ganglionic gliocytes
  149. afferent terminations : receptors
    • Location: Exteroreceptors-body surface, enteroreceptors-viscera, proprioceptors-musculoskeleton structures
    • Stimulus: mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors
    • Anatomically: nonencapsulated receptors - tactile corpuscles
    • encapsulated - encapsulated tactile (meissner's) corpuscles, Lamellar (paccinian) corpuscles, Bulbous(Krause's) genital corpuscles, neurotendinous and neuromuscular spindles
  150. Meninges
    • dura mater(pachymenix)
    • arachnoid and pia mater ar ecollectively termed leptomeninges
    • epidural space (spine)
    • Subarachnoid space (trabecule)
    • CSF: produced by choroid plexuses in ventricles by exciting through the lateral aperture it enters the subarachnoid space, physical protection to the brain and spinal cord
  151. Efferent terminations - neuromuscular synapse
    • presynaptic neuronal end plate overlaying a postsynaptic muscle sole plate in the mid region of the muscle fiber
    • Motor end plate: formed by short branches w/in a circumscribed zone (plate) at the end of one terminal branch of an efferent neuron, each plate plies in the corresponding trough of the muscle sole plate 40-50um gap
    • acetycholine: from motor end plate cytoplasm has many mitochondria and synaptic vesicles, released at active sites, diffusion across the neuromusclar gap and binds to postsynaptic receptor site, leads to muscle depolarization
  152. CNS
    • Spinal cord - grey matter(nerve cell bodies)
    • ventral horn-efferent neurons
    • dorsal horn-interneurons
    • lateral horn- sympathetic neurons
    • white matter - dorsal, ventral and lateral funiculi, ascending and descending tracts
    • central canal lined by ependymal cells
    • dorsal median septum and ventral median fissure
  153. cerebral cortex
    • gyri and sulci, six layers in grey matter
    • 1.molecular layer - processes of stellate or pyramidal neurons arranged tangentially
    • 2.external granular layer - small pyramidal neurons
    • 3.external pyramidal layer - small and medium pyramidal neurons
    • 4.internal granular layer - small stellate neurons
    • 5.internal pyramidal layer - medium to large pyramidal neurons that send axons into the white matter
    • 6.fusiform layer - many spindle shaped neurons
    • white matter - composed of nerve fibers going to and coming from the cortex
  154. cerebellum
    • outer grey and inner white matter arranged in a highly folded structure Folia
    • 3 layers - outer molecular layer: neuropil arranged horicontally
    • inner granular layer - densely packed small neurons with intensely stained nuclei
    • intermediate Purkinji cell layer: single layer of piniform cells, which send their ramified dendrites into the molecular layer, and axons into the white matter
    • white matter - nerve fibers of the cortex
  155. nerve repair
    • injured - nissle bodies move to site, nerve fiber distal to injury degerates, muscle fiber atrophy
    • regeneration - schwann cells proliferated (forming myelin) axon grows, muscle fiber atrophied
    • finished - muscle fibers regenerated, nissle bodies return to neuronal cell bodies
  156. Q-cell membrane has
    • consists of and outer and inner electron-dense lamina, and a electro-lucent intermediate lamina
    • proteins associated with the lipid bilayer may be integral transmembrane protein or peripheral membrane protein
    • glycocalyn coat is present in the external leaflet of the cell membrane
  157. Q- matching of organelles and their function
    • SRE - steroid hormone synthesis
    • Lysosomes - phagocytosis
    • Ribosomes - protein synthesis
  158. Q- matching of epithelium to location
    • simple columnar - intestine
    • transitional - urinary bladder
    • simple cuboidal - thyroid gland
  159. Q - which muscles have striations and centrally-located nucleus
    cardiac muscle
  160. Q - relation to the structure of the bone
    • endosteum lines the marrow cavity of the long bone
    • epiphyseal cartilage is present between epiphysus and diaphysis
    • epiphyseal cartilage undergoes ossification as an ageing process
  161. Q - which is present in cartilage
    • chondroitin sulphate
    • chondrocyte cells
    • chondroblast cells
  162. Q - bipolar neurons are located in
    retina of the eye
  163. Q - intervertebral disc or meisci have
    fibroelastic cartilage
  164. Q - statments in relation to bone structure
    • sharpey's fibers connect the tendon with the bone
    • the spongy bone is present in the interior of the epiphysis of the long bone
    • central canals of the adjacent osteons are connected by the perforating canal
  165. Q - telodendrites are terminal branches of
  166. Q - which cell organelle is selectively staines with Janus Green B
  167. Q - which cell produces histamine
    mast cell
  168. Q - which animal has bones in the fibrous base of the heart
  169. Q - porous capillaries are present in the
    kidney glomerulus
  170. Q - leucocytes true responses
    • monocytes are precursors of tissue macrophages
    • lymphocytes are responsible for antibody production
    • thrombocytes have major role in blood coagulation
  171. Q - statements of lymphoid organs
    • B Lymphocytes are differentiated in the bone marrow
    • lymphocytes, macrophage and plasma cells mainly constitute the parenchyma
    • reticular cells and fibers form the stroma of the lymphoid organ
  172. Q - matching of epithelium
    • bronchi - pseudostratified
    • bronchiole - simple columnar
    • alveoli - simple squamous
  173. Q - which animal ahve the predominance of lymphocytes in their differential leucocytes counts
  174. Q - which structure is devoid of glands
  175. Q - the portal area of the liver contains the branches
    • hepatic a
    • portal v
    • bile duct
    • D lymphatic
  176. Q - matching of structures to species
    • margoplicatus - horse
    • dental pad - cow
    • lyssa - dog
  177. Q - which structure is present in the SI and the LI
    • villi
    • paneth cells
    • goblet cells
  178. Q - matching of cell and their location
    • sertoli cell - testi
    • mesangial cell - glomerulus
    • Kupffer cell - liver
  179. Q - matchins of structure and their location
    • glisson's capsule - liver
    • peyer's patches - ileum
    • crypt of lieberkuhn - SI
  180. Q - which structure is not the part of the filtration barrier in the kidney
    • glomerular epi
    • glomerular basement membrane
    • visceral layer of the bowman's capsule
    • none of the above (correct answer)
  181. Q - renal corpuscle is composed of
    glomerulus and Bowmans capsule
  182. Q - small luteal cell are derived from
    theca cells
  183. Q - cumulus oophorus
    a group of granulosa cells which hold primary oocyte in the mature follicle
  184. Q - matching of structure and location
    • caruncle - uterus of cow
    • endometrial cups - uterus of mare
    • interestitial endocrine cells - ovary of bitch
  185. Q - matching of structure to epithelium
    • vagina - stratified squamous
    • uterus - simple columnar
    • epididymis - pseudostratified columnar
  186. Q - matching of hormone produced by the structure
    • oxytocin - hypothalamus
    • melanocyte stimulating hormone - pars intermedia
    • follicle stimulating hormone - pars distalis
  187. Q - matching in relation to the cells and their secretory hormone
    • chromaffin - epinephrine
    • B cells of the pancreatic islets - insulin
    • parafolicular cells - calcitonin
  188. Q - which layer contains keratohyalin granules in the epidermis
    stratum granulosum
  189. Q - which structure is composed of germinativue cells which give rise to the cells that keratinized form the hair
    hair matrix
  190. Q - which structure is related with the balancing of the head of the animal
    • macula utriculi
    • macula sacculi
    • crista ampullaris
  191. Q - which layer of the retina has bipolar neuron
    outer nuclear layer