CH07

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lewis408
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310500
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CH07
Updated:
2015-10-29 08:58:26
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Muscular Fitness
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  1. __________ training is also called resistance training
    Strength
  2. Progressive resistance __________ training provides significant improvements in functional capacity, fitness, health, self esteem, and overall well being
    strength
  3. Strength training is a program designed to improve muscular strength and/or endurance through a series of progressive resistance (weight) training exercises that _____________ the muscle system and cause physiological development
    overload
  4. Health benefits of strength training include:
    • Increases or maintains muscle
    • Leads to higher resting metabolic ratePrevents obesity
    • Lessens risk for injury
    • Benefits skeletal systemReduces pressure on joints; aids in childbearing
    • Lowers blood pressure & control blood sugar
    • Promotes psychological well-being
  5. Muscular __________ may be the most important health-related component for older adults
    strength
  6. Loss of ________ tissue is a primary reason for decrease in metabolism with age
    lean
  7. Strength training leads to muscle __________; An increase in the size of the cell, as in muscle _____________
    hypertrophy
  8. Also leads to higher resting ___________; Amount of energy (in milliliters of oxygen per minute or total calories per day) an individual requires during resting conditions to sustain proper body function.
    metabolism
  9. Muscle quality is the _____ in men and women
    same
  10. Use of _______________ and human growth hormones has negative health effects
    anabolic steroids
  11. _____________ is the ability of a muscle to exert maximum force against resistance and is measured by one repetition maximum (1RM)
    Muscular strength
  12. _____________ is the ability of a muscle to exert submaximal force repeatedly over time and is established by number of repetitions or length of time a contraction can be sustained
    Muscular endurance
  13. Different muscular strength and endurance assessments are:
    • Hand grip strength test (muscular strength) (see Figure 7.2)
    • Muscular endurance test (see Figure 7.3)Muscular strength and endurance test (see Figure 7.4)
  14. Factors that affect muscular fitness:
    • Neural function
    • Types of muscle fiber
    • Overload
    • Specificity of training
    • Training volume
    • Periodization
  15. Principles involved in strength training:
    • Mode of training
    • Resistance (intensity)
    • Sets
    • Frequency
    • Exercise variations
  16. Advantages of free weights:
    • Cost
    • Variety
    • Portability
    • Balance
    • One size fits all
  17. Advantages of machines:
    • Safety
    • Selection
    • Variable resistance
    • Isolation
    • Time
    • Flexibility
    • Rehabilitation
    • Skill acquisition
  18. Principles involved in strength training:
    • Mode
    • Resistance (Intensity)
    • Sets
    • Frequency
  19. ___________ generate greatest amount of force in the shortest amount of time, leads to greater increases in speed and explosiveness, also has a higher risk for injuries compared with conventional resistance training
    Plyometrics
  20. With plyometrics most strength gins are seen in __________weeks
    eight
  21. _____________ strength training is a gradual increase of resistance used during strength training over a period of time
    Progressive
  22. ______________ is age related loss of lean body mass, strength, and function
    Sarcopenia
  23. ________ is all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells; necessary to sustain life
    Metabolism
  24. __________ is the maximum amount of resistance an individual is able to lift in a single effort
    One repetition maximum
  25. _________ is a decrease is the size of a cell
    Atrophy
  26. __________ neurons are nerves that connect the central nervous system to the muscle
    Motor
  27. __________ unit is the combination of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers that neuron innervates
    Motor
  28. ____________ are muscle fibers with greater aerobic potential and slow speed of contraction (red fibers)
    Slow twitch fibers
  29. __________________ are muscle fibers with greater anaerobic potential and fast speed of contraction (white fibers).
    Fast twitch fibers
  30. Strength training method referring to a muscle contraction that produces little or no movement such as pushing or pulling against an immovable object
    Isometric
  31. One's ___________ of motion is the entire arc of movement of a given joint
    Range of motion
  32. __________ is strength training method referring to a muscle contraction with movement
    Dynamic training
  33. _________ describes shortening of a muscle
    Concentric
  34. _________ resistance is the lifting, pushing, or concentric phase of a repetition during a strength training exercise
    Positive resistance
  35. _________ describes lengthening of a muscle during muscle contraction
    Eccentric
  36. __________ resistance is the lowering or eccentric phase of a repetition during a strength training exercise
    Negative
  37. _________ weights consist of dumbbells and barbells
    Free weights
  38. ____________ are muscle contractions that produce little or no movement (little or no change in the angle)
    Isometric
  39. _________________ are muscle contractions that produce movement
    Dynamic
  40. ___________ training - variable resistance
    Isokinectic
  41. __________________ is a training principle stating that, for improvements to occur in a specific activity, the exercises performed during a strength training program should resemble as closely as possible the movement patterns encountered in that particular activity
    SAID (Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demand)
  42. __________ periodization is classical or linear model used by individuals seeking maximal strength development
    Classical
  43. _________ periodization is a model used primarily by individuals seeking greater muscular endurance. Resistances are highest at the beginning with a low volume, then program gradually switches to lower volume and higher resistances
    Reverse
  44. ___________ periodization is a model that uses a combination of volumes and resistances within a cycle by alternating in a nonlinear fashion among the muscular components: strength, hypertrophy, power, and endurance
    Undulating
  45. ______________ is an emotional, behavioral, and physical condition marked by increased fatigue, decreased performance, persistent muscle soreness, and feelings of staleness or burnout as a result of excessive physical training
    Overtraining
  46. The five training concepts that affect strength are:
    • neural stimulation
    • muscle fiber types
    • overload
    • specificity
    • periodization
  47. __________ joint exercises target specific muscle group for further development
    Single
  48. ____________ joint exercises allow you to lift more weight and develop more strength. Squat, bench press, and lat-pull down
    Multiple
  49. __________ training can enhance selected sports skill, such as single leg jumping, high jumping, and single arm throwing. Also extensively used in rehab
    Unilateral
  50. ____________ training is alternating exercises by performing them in a sequence of three t six or more
    Circuit
  51. _________ grams/kg of body weight per day
    • 1.2 grams for average people
    • 2.0 grams for athletes
  52. __________ exercise includes explosive jump training, incorporating speed and strength training to enhance explosiveness
    Plyometric
  53. _____________ strength training is a program designed to strengthen the abdominal, hip, and spinal muscles
    Core
  54. _________ is a strength training program that uses exercises to help strengthen the body's core by developing pelvic stability and abdominal control; exercises are coupled with focused breathing patterns
    Pilates
  55. _________ strength training also contributes to better posture and balance
    Core
  56. _____________ is the most important component of strength training
    Safety
  57. Safety guidelines:
    • warm up properly
    • use proper lifting techniques
    • don't lock out elbows or knees
    • maintain proper body balance
    • exercise larger muscle groups before smaller muscle groups
    • exercise opposing muscle groups
    • breathe naturally
    • avoid holding your breathe when lifting
    • use common sense when fatigued
    • stretch at the end of strength training
  58. ______________ is the amount of weight lifted
    Resistance
  59. Several procedures can be used to overload in strength training:
    • Increasing the intensity (resistance of amount of weight used)
    • Increasing the number of repetitions at current intensity
    • Increasing or decreasing the speed at which repetitions are performed
    • Decreasing rest interval
    • Increasing the volume (sum of repetitions performed by the resistance used)
    • Using any of the above combination

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