GU Research Mod 8

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  1. Used to describe and synthesize data.
    Descriptive statistics
  2. Examples of descriptive statistics
    • averages
    • percentage
  3. A descriptive index from a sample.
  4. Research questions are about parameters, but researchers calculate statistics to estimate them and use _________ to make inferences about the population.
    inferential statistics
  5. When averages and percentages are calculated from population data, they are called _____.
  6. The lowest leel of measurement.
  7. The level of measurement that involves assigning numbers to classify characteristics into categories.
  8. Examples of variables amenable to nominal measurement.
    • gender
    • blood type
    • marital status
  9. Level of measurement that involves sorting peope based on their relative ranking on an attribute.
  10. ______ measurement captures info about not only equivalence, but also about relative RANK.
  11. A level of meaurement that, for example, uses coding for functional abilities.
  12. _______ measurement occurs when researchers can specify rank ordering on an attribute and can assume equivalent distance b/w them.
  13. The Fahrenheit temp scale is an example of this level of measurement.
  14. In _______ scales, there is no real, rational zero point; ________ scales DO have an absolute zero..
    • interval
    • ratio
  15. Most psychological and educational tests yield ______ -level data.
  16. A person's weight is measured on a ______ scale.
  17. _________ measures provide info abou the ordering on a critical attribute, the intervals b/w objects, AND the absolute magnitude of the attribute.
  18. Because ratio scales have an absolute zero, all _______ ops are permissable.
  19. Averages are meaningless for which levels of measurement?
    • Nominal and
    • Ordinal
  20. Ranking people from lightest wt (1) to heaviest (6) is using a ________ scale.
  21. Using _________ measures you would classify someone's weight as being either heavy (1) or light (2).
  22. _____ and ______ measures usually are discernible, but the distinction b/w _____ and ______measures is more problematic.
    • nominal & ratio
    • ordinal & interval
  23. A set of data can be described in what three characteristics?
    • shape of distribution of values
    • central tendency
    • variability
  24. A systematic arrangement of values from lowest to highest, together with a count of the number of times each value was obtained.
    frequency distribution
  25. The sum of the frequencies must equal the _______.
    sample size
  26. Graphs for displaying ______ and _______ data include histograms and frequency polygons.
    • interval
    • ratio
  27. How are histograms and frequency polygons different?
    • Histogram: bars are drawn above the score classes to the ht corresponding to the frequency of that score
    • Frequency polygons use DOTS connected by straight lines to show frequencies
  28. When the longer tail of a frequency polygon points to the RIGHT, the distribution is ________.
    positively skewed.
  29. When the longer tail of a frequency polygon points to the LEFT, the distribution is ________.
    Negatively skewed
  30. The normal distribution plays a key role in _________ statistics.
  31. The term average is used to designate __________.
    central tendency
  32. The ____ is the most frequently occurring score value in a distribution.
  33. The _____ is used primarily to describe typical values for nominal-level measures.
  34. Mode also means ______.
  35. The _______ is the point in a distribution above which and below which 50% of cases fall.
  36. The median does not take into account the quantitative values of scores; it is an index of the average _______ in a distribution.
  37. Median values are insensitive to _________.
  38. The _______ is often the preferred index of central tendency when a distribution is skewed.
  39. How do scores affect the mean and median?
    The mean is affected by EVERY score; the median is not necessarily.
  40. When researchers wotk with _____ or ______-level measurements, which is usually the statistic reported?
    the mean (not the median or mode)
  41. The _____ is the most stable index of central tendency.
  42. The mode is most suitable for _______ measures.
  43. The mode or median is most suitable for _______ measures.
  44. The mean is most suitable for _______ measures.
  45. How spread out or dispersed the data are.
  46. Researchers compute an index of _________ to express the extent to which scores in a distribution differ from one another.
  47. Two commmon indexes of variablity.
    • range
    • standard deviation
  48. The highest score minus the lowest score in a distribution.
  49. Three limitations of range.
    • ignores variations in scores b/w 2 extremes
    • unstable and fluctuates widely
  50. With interval- or ratio-level data, the most widely used measure of variability is?
    the standard deviation
  51. The difference b/w an individual score and the mean.
    Deviation score
  52. If a person weighs 150 lbs and the mean was 140, what would the deviation score be for that person?
  53. The value of the standard deviation before a square root has been taken.
  54. A larger SD means what about the sample?
    it is more heterogenous
  55. What does the SD tell us?
    how much, on average, scores deviate from the mean
Card Set:
GU Research Mod 8
2015-11-03 22:03:03
GU Research Polit Beck
Mod 8 CH 16 Descriptive Statistics pg 379-389
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