# GU Research Mod 8

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1. Used to describe and synthesize data.
Descriptive statistics
2. Examples of descriptive statistics
• averages
• percentage
3. A descriptive index from a sample.
statistic
4. Research questions are about parameters, but researchers calculate statistics to estimate them and use _________ to make inferences about the population.
inferential statistics
5. When averages and percentages are calculated from population data, they are called _____.
parameters
6. The lowest leel of measurement.
Nominal
7. The level of measurement that involves assigning numbers to classify characteristics into categories.
nominal
8. Examples of variables amenable to nominal measurement.
• gender
• blood type
• marital status
9. Level of measurement that involves sorting peope based on their relative ranking on an attribute.
Ordinal
10. ______ measurement captures info about not only equivalence, but also about relative RANK.
Ordinal
11. A level of meaurement that, for example, uses coding for functional abilities.
Ordinal
12. _______ measurement occurs when researchers can specify rank ordering on an attribute and can assume equivalent distance b/w them.
Interval
13. The Fahrenheit temp scale is an example of this level of measurement.
Interval
14. In _______ scales, there is no real, rational zero point; ________ scales DO have an absolute zero..
• interval
• ratio
15. Most psychological and educational tests yield ______ -level data.
interval
16. A person's weight is measured on a ______ scale.
ratio
17. _________ measures provide info abou the ordering on a critical attribute, the intervals b/w objects, AND the absolute magnitude of the attribute.
Ratio
18. Because ratio scales have an absolute zero, all _______ ops are permissable.
arithmetic
19. Averages are meaningless for which levels of measurement?
• Nominal and
• Ordinal
20. Ranking people from lightest wt (1) to heaviest (6) is using a ________ scale.
ordinal
21. Using _________ measures you would classify someone's weight as being either heavy (1) or light (2).
nominal
22. _____ and ______ measures usually are discernible, but the distinction b/w _____ and ______measures is more problematic.
• nominal & ratio
• ordinal & interval
23. A set of data can be described in what three characteristics?
• shape of distribution of values
• central tendency
• variability
24. A systematic arrangement of values from lowest to highest, together with a count of the number of times each value was obtained.
frequency distribution
25. The sum of the frequencies must equal the _______.
sample size
26. Graphs for displaying ______ and _______ data include histograms and frequency polygons.
• interval
• ratio
27. How are histograms and frequency polygons different?
• Histogram: bars are drawn above the score classes to the ht corresponding to the frequency of that score
• Frequency polygons use DOTS connected by straight lines to show frequencies
28. When the longer tail of a frequency polygon points to the RIGHT, the distribution is ________.
positively skewed.
29. When the longer tail of a frequency polygon points to the LEFT, the distribution is ________.
Negatively skewed
30. The normal distribution plays a key role in _________ statistics.
inferential
31. The term average is used to designate __________.
central tendency
32. The ____ is the most frequently occurring score value in a distribution.
mode
33. The _____ is used primarily to describe typical values for nominal-level measures.
mode
34. Mode also means ______.
"typical"
35. The _______ is the point in a distribution above which and below which 50% of cases fall.
median
36. The median does not take into account the quantitative values of scores; it is an index of the average _______ in a distribution.
position
37. Median values are insensitive to _________.
extremes
38. The _______ is often the preferred index of central tendency when a distribution is skewed.
median
39. How do scores affect the mean and median?
The mean is affected by EVERY score; the median is not necessarily.
40. When researchers wotk with _____ or ______-level measurements, which is usually the statistic reported?
the mean (not the median or mode)
41. The _____ is the most stable index of central tendency.
mean
42. The mode is most suitable for _______ measures.
nominal
43. The mode or median is most suitable for _______ measures.
ordinal
44. The mean is most suitable for _______ measures.
ratio
45. How spread out or dispersed the data are.
variability
46. Researchers compute an index of _________ to express the extent to which scores in a distribution differ from one another.
variability
47. Two commmon indexes of variablity.
• range
• standard deviation
48. The highest score minus the lowest score in a distribution.
range
49. Three limitations of range.
• ignores variations in scores b/w 2 extremes
• unstable and fluctuates widely
50. With interval- or ratio-level data, the most widely used measure of variability is?
the standard deviation
51. The difference b/w an individual score and the mean.
Deviation score
52. If a person weighs 150 lbs and the mean was 140, what would the deviation score be for that person?
+10
53. The value of the standard deviation before a square root has been taken.
variance
54. A larger SD means what about the sample?
it is more heterogenous
55. What does the SD tell us?
how much, on average, scores deviate from the mean

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 Author: MeganM ID: 310503 Filename: GU Research Mod 8 Updated: 2015-11-03 22:03:03 Tags: GU Research Polit Beck Folders: GU,Research Description: Mod 8 CH 16 Descriptive Statistics pg 379-389 Show Answers:

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