GU Research Mod 8

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MeganM
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310503
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GU Research Mod 8
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2015-11-03 17:03:03
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Mod 8 CH 16 Descriptive Statistics pg 379-389
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  1. Used to describe and synthesize data.
    Descriptive statistics
  2. Examples of descriptive statistics
    • averages
    • percentage
  3. A descriptive index from a sample.
    statistic
  4. Research questions are about parameters, but researchers calculate statistics to estimate them and use _________ to make inferences about the population.
    inferential statistics
  5. When averages and percentages are calculated from population data, they are called _____.
    parameters
  6. The lowest leel of measurement.
    Nominal
  7. The level of measurement that involves assigning numbers to classify characteristics into categories.
    nominal
  8. Examples of variables amenable to nominal measurement.
    • gender
    • blood type
    • marital status
  9. Level of measurement that involves sorting peope based on their relative ranking on an attribute.
    Ordinal
  10. ______ measurement captures info about not only equivalence, but also about relative RANK.
    Ordinal
  11. A level of meaurement that, for example, uses coding for functional abilities.
    Ordinal
  12. _______ measurement occurs when researchers can specify rank ordering on an attribute and can assume equivalent distance b/w them.
    Interval
  13. The Fahrenheit temp scale is an example of this level of measurement.
    Interval
  14. In _______ scales, there is no real, rational zero point; ________ scales DO have an absolute zero..
    • interval
    • ratio
  15. Most psychological and educational tests yield ______ -level data.
    interval
  16. A person's weight is measured on a ______ scale.
    ratio
  17. _________ measures provide info abou the ordering on a critical attribute, the intervals b/w objects, AND the absolute magnitude of the attribute.
    Ratio
  18. Because ratio scales have an absolute zero, all _______ ops are permissable.
    arithmetic
  19. Averages are meaningless for which levels of measurement?
    • Nominal and
    • Ordinal
  20. Ranking people from lightest wt (1) to heaviest (6) is using a ________ scale.
    ordinal
  21. Using _________ measures you would classify someone's weight as being either heavy (1) or light (2).
    nominal
  22. _____ and ______ measures usually are discernible, but the distinction b/w _____ and ______measures is more problematic.
    • nominal & ratio
    • ordinal & interval
  23. A set of data can be described in what three characteristics?
    • shape of distribution of values
    • central tendency
    • variability
  24. A systematic arrangement of values from lowest to highest, together with a count of the number of times each value was obtained.
    frequency distribution
  25. The sum of the frequencies must equal the _______.
    sample size
  26. Graphs for displaying ______ and _______ data include histograms and frequency polygons.
    • interval
    • ratio
  27. How are histograms and frequency polygons different?
    • Histogram: bars are drawn above the score classes to the ht corresponding to the frequency of that score
    • Frequency polygons use DOTS connected by straight lines to show frequencies
  28. When the longer tail of a frequency polygon points to the RIGHT, the distribution is ________.
    positively skewed.
  29. When the longer tail of a frequency polygon points to the LEFT, the distribution is ________.
    Negatively skewed
  30. The normal distribution plays a key role in _________ statistics.
    inferential
  31. The term average is used to designate __________.
    central tendency
  32. The ____ is the most frequently occurring score value in a distribution.
    mode
  33. The _____ is used primarily to describe typical values for nominal-level measures.
    mode
  34. Mode also means ______.
    "typical"
  35. The _______ is the point in a distribution above which and below which 50% of cases fall.
    median
  36. The median does not take into account the quantitative values of scores; it is an index of the average _______ in a distribution.
    position
  37. Median values are insensitive to _________.
    extremes
  38. The _______ is often the preferred index of central tendency when a distribution is skewed.
    median
  39. How do scores affect the mean and median?
    The mean is affected by EVERY score; the median is not necessarily.
  40. When researchers wotk with _____ or ______-level measurements, which is usually the statistic reported?
    the mean (not the median or mode)
  41. The _____ is the most stable index of central tendency.
    mean
  42. The mode is most suitable for _______ measures.
    nominal
  43. The mode or median is most suitable for _______ measures.
    ordinal
  44. The mean is most suitable for _______ measures.
    ratio
  45. How spread out or dispersed the data are.
    variability
  46. Researchers compute an index of _________ to express the extent to which scores in a distribution differ from one another.
    variability
  47. Two commmon indexes of variablity.
    • range
    • standard deviation
  48. The highest score minus the lowest score in a distribution.
    range
  49. Three limitations of range.
    • ignores variations in scores b/w 2 extremes
    • unstable and fluctuates widely
  50. With interval- or ratio-level data, the most widely used measure of variability is?
    the standard deviation
  51. The difference b/w an individual score and the mean.
    Deviation score
  52. If a person weighs 150 lbs and the mean was 140, what would the deviation score be for that person?
    +10
  53. The value of the standard deviation before a square root has been taken.
    variance
  54. A larger SD means what about the sample?
    it is more heterogenous
  55. What does the SD tell us?
    how much, on average, scores deviate from the mean

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