Zoonotic2- Fleas

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  1. What is the etiologic agent for the plague?
    Yersinia pestis
  2. Describe Y. pestis microbiologically.
    gram neg, non-motile, poor environmental persistence
  3. What are the reservoirs of Y. pestis?
    rats (globally), prairie dogs and squirrels in the US
  4. Modes of transmission of Y. pestis. (4)
    rodent flea bites, aerosol, ingestion of infected animal, direct contact with body fluids of infected individuals
  5. Ingestion of an infected animal is a common method of transmission for ________; this is an implication for humans because...
    domestic cats; they can be exposed to body fluids from their infected cat---> human infection
  6. ___________ in rodent populations forces their fleas to change hosts, causing expansion into _________ and __________.
    Large die-off; human occupied areas; Y. pestis infection in humans and their pets
  7. Y. pestis as a biological weapon is most dangerous as ___________ because...
    aerosol; pneumonic plague is highly contagious.
  8. Presentation for cats with Y. pestis. (3)
    submandibular lymphadenitis, fever, cough
  9. Clinical forms of the plague. (4)
    sudden onset fever/malaise/GI signs, bubonic plague, septicemic plague, pneumonic plague
  10. Most plague cases are ___________, which presents as... (2)
    bubonic plague; swollen lymph nodes, black skin
  11. Septicemic plague is a _________ infection that occurs after a _______ or contact with _________; it is _________.
    systemic; flea bite; infectious fluids; life-threatening
  12. Pneumonic plague is _________ infection after exposure to __________; it leads to ___________.
    pulmonary; infectious aerosol droplets; rapid death without treatment
  13. Prevention and control of the plague. (6)
    control rodent hosts and flea vectors, wear long shirt/pants/DEET in impact areas, avoid contact with dead rodents, PPE with suspect animals, prophylaxis, human vaccine
  14. What is the etiologic agent of cat scratch disease?
    Bartonella henselae (most common species implicated)
  15. Describe Bartonella microbiologically. (3)
    gram neg, rod, slow-growing
  16. What is the most important reservoir of Bartonella for zoonotic transmission?
  17. Describe the vector-borne transmission of Bartonella.
    cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) cat-to-cat
  18. How is Bartonella transmitted to humans? (2)
    scratches or bites from cats, needle sticks (implications for workers in vetmed)
  19. Describe Bartonella infection in humans.
    usually self-limiting benign disease that resolves spontaneously, regional lymphadenopathy, small skin lesions, fever +/- malaise
  20. Describe Bartonella infection in cats.
    usually asymptomatic bacteremia, self-limiting febrile illness
  21. What are some more serious complications of Bartonella infection in humans? (3)
    osteomyelitis, granulomatous hepatitis, granulomatous splenitis [all rare]
  22. Bartonella can cause serious complications in ____________, including... (4)
    immunocompromised individuals; persistent fever, anorexia, bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis
  23. Describe prevention and control of Bartonella. (3)
    flea control on cats, try not to get bitten/scratched by a cat, wash and disinfection cat-inflicted wounds [all so especially important for immunocompromised people with pet cats]
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Zoonotic2- Fleas
2015-10-29 00:17:15
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