Card Set Information
growth development cells
Tissue Structure and Composition
What is Growth?
An increase in size without changing compostion.
Example: Small liver cells still function the same as large liver cells.
Cells growing larger in size
An increase in cell number.
Usually occurs at a very young age, often before the animal is born.
Increase in material around cells.
Increase in complexity.
: 8-cell embryo development. Simple form -> more complex form.
Why is meat so highly desired by consumers?
1. High quality protein
2. Good iron source
3. Good source of B vitamins
What is the feed conversion ADG?
- should it be high or low?
Average Daily gain. Growth/Day
What is the feed conversion for feed efficiency?
- should it be high or low?
lbs. feed/lbs. gain
How can growth and development be improved?
3. Other additives
- implants, hormones, vitamins, minerals
List the 4 tissue structures
Describe epithelium tissue
- thin layer of cells covering free surfaces in the body.
- Simple or stratified
Describe Connective tissue
-Holds parts of the body together
List the types of connective tissue
1. Blood and lymph
2. Bone and cartilage
3. Adipose (fat)
4. Connective tissue proper
What is contained in connective tissue proper?
4. Ground Substance
Name the two ingredients in Ground Substance
Glycosalaminoglycans and proteoglycans
- also known as synovial fluid
Forms of connective tissue
Dense: bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons
Lose: organ framework, blood vessels, muscle sheets
Describe ground substance
- viscous clear fluid
- contains glycoprotein (protein + cartilage)
- Contains glycoaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid)
-chondroitin sulfates (cartilage and tendons)
What are extracellular fibers?
- can be dense or lose
- contain collagen and elsastin
colagen is most abundant at 20-30% of the bodies protein and influences meat tenderness.
Describe the connective tissue adipose.
: fibroblasts and adipocytes
Used for body temp regulation
Protection of major organs
: 76-94% lipid, 5-20% water, 1-4% protein
What is a fibroblast?
Precursor cell for multiple connective tissues
What is an adipocyte?
Mature fat cells that store triglycerides.
Describe the connective tissue, cartilage.
Structural support for other tissues in the body
Important for bone formation
Chondrocytes are the main cells
ECM (ground substance)
What are the types of cartilage?
Most abundant cartilage
resides on surfaces of bones and joints
and ventral side of ribs
Dorsal tips of vertebrae (buttons)
blue/white in color
more flexible than hyaline
matrix with branch elastic fibers
Epiglotis (hangy down thin in throat) is made of this cartilage
Numerous collagenose fibers
At ends of tendons-bone connection
Within capsules and ligaments of joints
Bone connective tissue
Most rigid of connective tissues
made of cells, fibers, and calcified ECM
for support and structure
Protection for organs
calcium, magnesium, sodium, and other ion storage
Long Bone structure
: central shaft. Hollow center with marrow. Compact bone
: both ends of diaphysis. Spongy bone inside. compact bone outside.
: Outside layer coating or membrane. Covers entire bone.
: thin layer of hyaline. covers joint surfaces.
: Inner layer of diaphysis shaft.
: growth plate. between the epiphysis and diaphysis. Appears as cartilage in young animals, growth plate in mature.
Bone Cell Types
: cell cavities within the calcified matrix.
: Immature percursor cells. Mature into osteocytes
: Mineral regulation. involves resorption (bone loss)