Neonates and Geriatrics
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Definition of a neonate
new born until eyes open (+/- 2 weeks of age)
What are the vitals of a neonate?
- Temp: 95.9-97.7 F
- Pulse: 180-250 bpm
- Resp: 15-35 rpm
What is a umbilical bump?
a genetic defect (don't breed parents together again)
Healthy signs of a neonate?
- Moving towards teats to nurse
- vocal for a short time
- good hydration
- clear eyes, nose, mouth
- no diarrhea (that isn't normal neonate excretion)
- no vomiting
Sick or clinical signs of a neonate?
- Excessive crying
- inability to nurse
- unable to move w/ mother or litter mates
What are some physical properties we look at when assessing a ill neonate?
- poor muscle tone
- pale or grey MM
- increased respiratory rate/effort/sound
- absence of gut sounds
What are the three things we look at with triage on a neonate? (in order of importance)
- 1) respirations
- 2) Temperature
- 3) Nutrition
In Triage for a neonate what can we do for respiration's?
- Check breathing
- place a oxygen mask or place in oxygen chamber
In Triage for a neonate what can we do for temperature?
Incubators to provide ambient room temperature (85-90 F w/ 55-56% humidity)
In Triage for a neonate what can we do for nutrition?
- Hydrate (1-10cc) then can move onto feeding.
- USe caution to weigh first and after, it is easy to over hydrate
When should birth weight double by?
12 days of age
What ratio should nutrition be supplied?
22-26 kcal:100g of body weight
What is the ratio for milk replacer?
- 13-22ml:100g body weight
- Split into 4 meals per day
How many drops per second should you deliver when nursing with a bottle nipple?
what is the stomach capacity of a neonate?
what temperature should neonate food be at?
How do you feed a non suckling neonate?
place gastric intubation tube(care not to place in lungs!)
How long after a neonate is born does it take to get a gag reflex?
How to measure a feeding tube length for a neonate?
Tip of nose to last rib
WHat should you do to the puppy while feeding?
rub their stomach to increase gut movement
When tube feeding how do we simulate eating and urination to notify the body that food is being "eaten"?
Wiping a warm moist cloth on the face and rectum
What is the ratio of weight gain per day for a puppy?
1-1.5 g/day to each pound anticipated in adult weight.
When is a common time for needing to resuscitate a neonate?
after a c-section (cesarean section)
What are the four steps to resuscitation of a neonate?
- 1) Clear away placental membranes from face
- 2) hang upside down to drain fluids that may have been aspirated
- 3) briskly rub thorax and face with warm towel
- 4) Oxygen directed at neonate or placed in incubator
What is "step five" of neonate resuscitation is the animal has yet to respond to the other steps?
administer respiratory stimulant (drugs) or anesthetic reversal (if c-section)
Where can you administer drugs on a neonate when resuscitating?
- IV to umbilical cord
- Sublingual under the tongue
What can be impaired in a geriatric patient?
- cardiopulmonary functions
What are some condition we should be wary of when restraining a geriatric patient?
- Poor coat condition
- fragile skin
- body aches and pains
Why should you handle a geriatric patient gently?
they can't sense you like they use to
What are some things we can do to make a geriatric patients visit better?
- Kinder restraint
- Extra padding on surfaces
- move them slowly
- avoid upsets of gastric system
What should yo tai into account when selecting medication for a geriatric patient?
organ function levels
Why can you easily one hydrate a geriatric patient with IV fluids?
Poor kidney function
What is the goal when accommodating a recumbent/terminal patient?
provide extra special care of animal and owner
What are some ways to better a recumbent/terminal patients visit?
- Special food and treats
- clean cages
- moisten MM for them
- treat gently and kindly
- shift animals body
- allow owner visit time
What are five routes to place feeding tube?
Who do we use a orogastric on? How long can you keep it in?
- Babies (no teeth)
- and 2-3 days top
Where do we insert a Nasogastric tube? How long? Who can we NOT use this on?
- OPening of nose
- long term use
- should not use on animals without a gag reflex
Where do we insert a pharyngostomy tube? What are some problems with this route?
- through the wall of the pharynx
- can cause vomiting and regurgitation
When is a good time to use a jejunostomy?
When there is an injury to the face
How do we place gastrostomy feeding tube? Why is it good to use?
- body wall into the stomach (general surgery needed to insert)
- It can be easily used even by owner
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