6 Ling 204

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  1. Ethnolect
    An ethnic variety of a language or dialect
  2. Ethnic hypercorrection
    When people use a feature associated with their ethnic group even less often than non-members of the group
  3. Enclaves
    A distinctly bounded geographic area in which many residents share an ethnicity or other social characteristic
  4. Ethnonym
    A name or term for an ethnic group
  5. Whiteness
    A term from social sciences that emphasizes that Whiteness, like other ethnic characteristics is marked and nameable. White privilege is said to gain its power in part from the fact that Whiteness is not examined or seen as a separate noticeable thing.
  6. Crossing
    When speakers use language features or linguistic styles associated with another ethnic group
  7. Ethnicity is a
    • Social characteristic like gender or class
    • It affects language that people use
  8. Henri Tajfel
    Did social psychology on racism
  9. Ethnic boundaries are
    When some triggering force makes an ethnic distinction important to a society
  10. Ethnic/social group distinctions that matter
    • Longstanding minorities (AAE)
    • Incoming immigrant groups
    • Multiple new groups
  11. Strategies of marking ethnic identity
    • Heritage language
    • Code switching
    • Pronunciation, grammar, stress patterns, discourse
    • Features from another language variety
  12. Ethnic and regional features
    Can be mixed, like with AAE lexicon pronounced with an Appalachian accent/features
  13. Who uses more ethnolect?
    • People in enclaves: Places where many residences share ethnicity
    • Probably people who can't integrate
  14. Who counts as ethnic
    • Someone who identifies as ethnic group A
    • Are willing to be treated as ethnic group A rather than B
    • Allow their behavior to be interpreted/judged as A's not B's
    • Have shared systems of symbols and meanings as in norms and rules for conduct, normatively associated with community A
  15. Which ethnic distinctions matter?
    Societies decide: Varies by time and place
  16. What do we call members of ethnic groups?
    Ethnonyms (ethnic names)
  17. Ethonyms
    • Change over time: African-> colored-> negro-> Negro-> black-> African American
    • Which causes a change in the name of a variety
  18. What does naming a group or variety do?
    • Emphasizes distinctiveness
    • Emphasizes its markedness
    • Which implies that un-named groups and varieties are normal and named ones are not
  19. Speakers of White Varieties
    • Benefit from its benefit from it's unmarked natures (it's "Invisibly normal")
    • Erase the back story of white privilege from conversations about standard language
  20. Acting white
    • Penalties for "sounding white" within a community
    • Names: Oreo, apple, banana, coconut
    • Speakers bridge the gap by using some features but not others
  21. In practice crossing is used to describe
    The use of minority/marked ethnolects by nonmembers, especially members of the majority/unmarked groups
  22. Why do some people cross?
    • Covert prestige
    • Different lets have social meaning connotations
    • Positive connotations often involve toughness, authenticity
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6 Ling 204
2015-10-29 17:25:23

Chapter 6 and notes.
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