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An ethnic variety of a language or dialect
When people use a feature associated with their ethnic group even less often than non-members of the group
A distinctly bounded geographic area in which many residents share an ethnicity or other social characteristic
A name or term for an ethnic group
A term from social sciences that emphasizes that Whiteness, like other ethnic characteristics is marked and nameable. White privilege is said to gain its power in part from the fact that Whiteness is not examined or seen as a separate noticeable thing.
When speakers use language features or linguistic styles associated with another ethnic group
Ethnicity is a
- Social characteristic like gender or class
- It affects language that people use
Did social psychology on racism
Ethnic boundaries are
When some triggering force makes an ethnic distinction important to a society
Ethnic/social group distinctions that matter
- Longstanding minorities (AAE)
- Incoming immigrant groups
- Multiple new groups
Strategies of marking ethnic identity
- Heritage language
- Code switching
- Pronunciation, grammar, stress patterns, discourse
- Features from another language variety
Ethnic and regional features
Can be mixed, like with AAE lexicon pronounced with an Appalachian accent/features
Who uses more ethnolect?
- People in enclaves: Places where many residences share ethnicity
- Probably people who can't integrate
Who counts as ethnic
- Someone who identifies as ethnic group A
- Are willing to be treated as ethnic group A rather than B
- Allow their behavior to be interpreted/judged as A's not B's
- Have shared systems of symbols and meanings as in norms and rules for conduct, normatively associated with community A
Which ethnic distinctions matter?
Societies decide: Varies by time and place
What do we call members of ethnic groups?
Ethnonyms (ethnic names)
- Change over time: African-> colored-> negro-> Negro-> black-> African American
- Which causes a change in the name of a variety
What does naming a group or variety do?
- Emphasizes distinctiveness
- Emphasizes its markedness
- Which implies that un-named groups and varieties are normal and named ones are not
Speakers of White Varieties
- Benefit from its benefit from it's unmarked natures (it's "Invisibly normal")
- Erase the back story of white privilege from conversations about standard language
- Penalties for "sounding white" within a community
- Names: Oreo, apple, banana, coconut
- Speakers bridge the gap by using some features but not others
In practice crossing is used to describe
The use of minority/marked ethnolects by nonmembers, especially members of the majority/unmarked groups
Why do some people cross?
- Covert prestige
- Different lets have social meaning connotations
- Positive connotations often involve toughness, authenticity
What would you like to do?
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