9 Linguistics 204

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ECCammi
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310573
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9 Linguistics 204
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2015-10-29 13:47:20
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Sociolinguistics
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Chapter 9 and notes
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  1. Interactions
    • A relationship between two or more individuals.
    • Sociolingusitically it's usually pretty much a synonym for conversation
  2. Discourse
    An extended language interaction that is linger than a sentence. Also the study of such interactions
  3. Discourse analysis
    An examination of the structure of a conversation, looking for linguistic regularities
  4. Ethnography of communication
    The study of discourse in relation to extra linguistic variables that identify the social basis of communication
  5. Speech situations
    The circumstances and context surrounding the use of speech
  6. Speech events
    A group of speech acts or interactions
  7. Communicative competence
    Native speakers' ability to produce and understand grammatically acceptable and situationally appropriate sentences
  8. Speech acts
    A communicative activity or utterance that does something
  9. Scripts
    In Seville Troike and Klefgen the social expectation that people bring to an interaction
  10. Codes
    In Seville troike and Klefgen the content and form of an interaction
  11. Conversation analysis
    Among other things, this method looks at the sequential organization of conversation and how participants mange the conversation using strategies like turn taking
  12. Adjacency pair
    A single stimulus-plus-response sequence by participants, that is, one in which a specific type of utterance by one speaker is followed by a specific type by someone else
  13. Openings
    In conversation analysis, openings begin the interaction
  14. Closings
    In conversation analysis, closings end the interaction
  15. Turn taking
    Part of conversation analysis that looks at how speakers share the conversational floor or right to speak
  16. Discourse marker
    A word or phrase that isn't really part of sentence structure, but that helps an interaction along. Ex. Well, y'know, I mean...
  17. High involvement style
    In conversation analysis, a type of interaction involving frequent turn changes interruption and overlapping speech
  18. Politeness theory
    Based on the notion of face, politeness theory argues that people use strategies of positive politeness and negative politeness to negotiate personal interactions
  19. Face wants
    The desire to protect one's positive face and negative face, Also called face needs
  20. Face threatening acts
    Actions that threaten people's face wants
  21. Power
    An unequal or non-reciprocal relationship between two or more speakers predicting who (or whose norms) will dominate an interaction
  22. Solidarity
    Closeness or intimacy or shared status
  23. Status
    Social positions that society assigns to its members, or the differences between social groups in terms of the prestige associated with them by others
  24. Form of address
    The way in which conversation participants call (or address) each other
  25. Reciprocal naming
    An expression of solidarity as when friends call each other by their first names
  26. No-naming
    Addressing somebody or getting someone's attention without using any address form at all
  27. Co-occurrence restrictions
    Constraints on which forms or styles can be used together
  28. Our language may have certain traits
    But those are only revealed or performed in extended interaction (discourse)
  29. Components of a speech event, S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G.
    • Setting: Place, time, social occasion
    • Participants: You, me, them
    • Ends: Purpose, goals
    • Act sequences: content of speech
    • Key: Mood, tone
    • Instrumentalities: Mode, dialect, language
    • Norms: Conventions of interaction
    • Genres: Category of speech event
  30. Are some S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G. components more important than others?
    • Might, depending on situation
    • Scripts can matter more than codes
  31. Functions of interactions
    • Referential: get information from speaker to hearer
    • Expressive: Express out feelings
    • Directive: Get someone to do something
    • Phatic: Express empathy or solidarity
  32. In conversation analysis you can
    • Look for recognizable patterns
    • Like adjacency pairs (question/answer, request/refusal)
    • Sometimes one act can be interpreted as another
  33. Organizing conversation includes
    • Openings, closings
    • Turn taking
    • Discourse markers
  34. Reciprocal first-naming
    Show solidarity and closeness
  35. Title+last name
    Shows status, formality, distance
  36. Terms of...
    • Endearment: Honey, sweetie
    • Non-endearment: Buddy, pal
  37. Informal, casual speech shows
    Solidarity
  38. Social distance can be shown through
    Formal speech
  39. The powerless can
    Express disagreement or disrespect through use of informal language
  40. Stylistic levels and status
    • Some languages have sharp demarcations between the language to be used to or by people of different social status
    • Generally you need to use words and grammar from all one level or all another

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