10 Ling 204

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  1. Asymmetrical bilingualism
    A bilingual situation in which the less powerful linguistic groups are expected to adopt the language of the powerful group in order to access education or government services or jobs
  2. Diglossia
    A situation in which two distinctly different language varieties co-exist in a speech community, acting as social registers in which he high variety is used in formal situations and the low variety among friends
  3. Domain
    The social or institutional context of language use
  4. Societal multilingualism
    When multiple languages co-exist in a single community
  5. Unstable multilingualism
    Temporary of fleeting instances of social multilingualism
  6. Code switching
    When people alternate between at least two languages or language varieties in a single conversation (across sentences or clause boundaries) sometimes called code mixing
  7. Situational code-switching
    When code switching is constrained by the social context. AKA domain based code switching
  8. Metaphorical code switching
    When code switching is used as a Sociolinguistic resource rather than just to respond to context
  9. Matrix language
    The dominant language in code switching
  10. Free morpheme constraint
    A proposed constraint on code switching. Simplified version: switching can't happen between bound morpheme, word parts that can't stand on their own
  11. Equivalence constraint
    A proposed constraint on code switching. Simpler version: Switching tends to happen where the sentence structure just before and just after the switch are possible in both languages involved
  12. Nonce Borrowings
    Individual words from another language that are inserted, often being changed to obey the riles of the matrix language
  13. Multilingualism is the norm
    • Most of the world's people live in multilingual societies
    • Which probably effects how they think about languages
    • Different thresholds for calling yourself multilingual in different societies
  14. How do societies become multilingual?
    • Population movements: immigration, refugees
    • Non-linguistic boundary drawing: Colonial situations
    • Exogamy: When people marry out of their language group
  15. Types of multilingual societies
    • Individuals are multilingual using different languages for different things
    • Society is multilingual but most speakers are monolingual (regionally clustered)
    • In between some speakers are multilingual
  16. Asymmetrical bilingualism
    • Less powerful linguistic groups are expected to adopt the language of the more powerful
    • The powerful are monolingual but the less powerful aren't
    • Common in immigrant socities
  17. High H Language
    • In formal domains, school, literature, news
    • To strangers, bosses, teachers
    • Largely school learned
  18. Low L language
    • In informal domains, home, schoolyard, market
    • To family, close friends, subordinates
    • Informally acquired
  19. What can you do with L and H language?
    • L: Lighten up serious conversation; to express that your opinions are common sense; to challenge who owns a domain
    • H: To tell kids you really mean it this time; to lead authority in arguments
  20. Code switching as a skill
    • You need to know both languages well to switch fluently
    • The opposite of how it's perceived by monolingual who assume people switch because they don't know the right word in one of the languages
  21. Responses to switching
    • Are often negative despite it being a normal means of interaction in some communities
    • Outsiders think it shows a lack of skill despite the opposite being true
    • People are afraid of being talked about in another language
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10 Ling 204
2015-10-29 17:58:25

Chapter 10 and notes
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