11 Ling 204

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11 Ling 204
2015-10-29 14:03:48

Chapter 11 and notes
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  1. Contact
    When speakers of a language or language variety interact with speakers of a different language or language variety
  2. Dialect leveling
    The process where the regional features of the speech of a group of people converge toward a common norm over time
  3. Lexical gap
    When a particular language doesn't have a word for a particular concept (and thus usually adopts a word from another language)
  4. Borrowings
    A linguistic form taken from one language or dialect and incorporated into another, such that monolingual speakers of the latter use it, sometimes with new associations
  5. Nativization
    When a word borrowed from another language is changed so that is behaves like a word from our language
  6. Folk etymology
    A change in a word's form based on a mistaken understanding of its meaning or composition
  7. Sprachbund
    A group of (usually unrelated) languages that have become more similar because of geographical proximity
  8. Mixed language
    A language that share components of two or more languages, generally in equal proportions
  9. Michif
    An example of a mixed language still spoken in and around Manitoba among the Mets people of mixed Cree and French ancestory
  10. Lingua franca
    The language used when people who speak different languages need to interact on a regular basis, but have languages that are not mutually intelligible
  11. Pidgin
    A language variety that is stripped down to its essentials, that is, not very linguistically complex. Pidgin arise in language contact situations, ex trade an dare used as lingua franc
  12. Lexifer language
    The language that supplies most of the vocab for a pidgin or creole
  13. Creole
    A language variety that develops out of a pidgin in a language contact situation. Unlike a pidgin, a Créole is spoke as a first language of some group of speakers and can be used in the entire range of social settings
  14. Bajan
    A casual term for Barbarian English
  15. Proto-pidgin
    Part of the relexification hypothesis, this is the template language in which the actual words of different lexifer languages are slotted
  16. Relexification hypothesis
    The argument that similarities among Créole arise because Créole all over the world have developed from a single template language, which acted as a sort of structural frame into which the actual words of different lexifer languages were slotted
  17. Language bioprogram hypothesis
    The argument that similarities among Créole arise because all children have access to an innate biological program that leads them to restructure the very basic input of each pidgin in the same way
  18. Substrate
    A variety that has influenced the structure or use of another, more dominant variety
  19. Superstrate
    A variety that has influenced the structure or used of another less dominant variety
  20. Decreolization
    A reduction in the number of Créole features in the speech of an individual of community
  21. Basilect
    A term used in Créole studies to refer to the most Créole like variety that is, the most distant from the acrolect.
  22. Acrolect
    A term used in Créole studies to refer to the least Créole like or most standard or prestigious variety,
  23. Mesolect
    A term used in Créole studies to refer to the intermediate variety between basilica and acrolect
  24. Créole continuum
    Subvarities of Créole fall along a continuum, ranging from basilica, the least standard to acrolect the most standard
  25. Implicational scale
    A scar or ordering that implies that a feature associated with a particular point will also be associated with all points to one side of it
  26. Languages in contact
    Are not just dialects, and do not just lead to dialect leveling
  27. Quick switching
    Starting a sentence in one language and ending in another
  28. Nonce borrowings is
    • Not really switching, just a word or two thrown in
    • If a word gets used often enough it can become and official part of the matrix language-this is just known as borrowing
  29. Ways to get new word introduced into a language include
    • Borrowings
    • Introducing new things and concepts
  30. Most influence on English is
    • Borrowed words
    • Occasionally structure can be borrowed as well
    • It requires sustained contact as in a sprachbund (language union)
  31. Types of contact languages
    • Mixed languages
    • Lingua francas
    • Pidgins
    • Creoles
  32. Post-Créole continuum
    • Créole languages often co exist with their lexifier languages or a more standard version of the Créole.
    • Créole features drop out as you move up the lectal scale