AGRY 320

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Author:
jdenniso
ID:
31060
Filename:
AGRY 320
Updated:
2010-08-31 13:58:24
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Genetics
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Chapter 1
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  1. What is a somatic cell?
    Vegetative cells that divide by mitosis.
  2. Germ cells
    Reproductive cells that give rise to gametes after meiosis.
  3. List and name the DNA base pairs
    • A (Adenine) pairs with T (Thiamine)
    • C (Cytosine) pairs with G (Gaunine)
  4. What is Transcription?
    The process of DNA being rewritten as RNA and still looking similar.
  5. What is Translation?
    DNA and RNA being made into something completely different.
  6. List 6 Methodologies found in genetics.
    • 1. Mutations and mutants
    • 2. Analyzing progeny from controlled matings (crosses)
    • 3. Genetic analysis of biochemical processes through mutations and mutants
    • 4. Microscopic analysis of chromosomes (cytogenetics)
    • 5. Direct analysis of DNA and RNA (cloning, sequencing)
    • 6. Computer analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences (bioinfomatics)
  7. What are the three blotting methods?
    • 1. southern blot
    • 2. western blot
    • 3. Northern blot
  8. Define Allelic Variation
    • Presence in a population of different forms of a given gene.
    • Polymorphism = many forms
  9. Define Mutation
    • A change in DNA (or RNA) sequence
    • Anything that is a change in the nucleic acid sequence
  10. Mutant
    a rare, exceptional individual
  11. variant
    a somewhat rare individual
  12. Wild type (normal)
    type most commonly found
  13. Define recombination
    • The mixing of alleles.
    • Example: joining gametes. Segregation and crossing over at meiosis.
  14. Describe discontinuous variation
    • two discreet states
    • example: drosophila flies; normal wings and vestigial wings
  15. Describe Continuous variation
    • Many different states
    • Much more common in nature
    • Much harder to breakdown into 'this' or 'that'
  16. "norm of reaction"
    The response of a given genotype to a wide range of environments
  17. Levels of genetic study
    • Features generally applicable to many organisms
    • example: body plan of insects. some are butterflies and some are ants, but they all have a head, thorax, and abdomen.
    • Features that are consistent within species but differ between species
    • example: body color of insects
    • Features that still vary even within a species--can use to understand the roldes of environment and development.
    • example: drosophila eye development.
  18. What is Diploid?
    Two of every chromosome
  19. What effects the phenotype of the gene?
    Where a mutation in a gene takes place.
  20. Another word for hybrid
    • Heterozygote
    • Ex: Aa
  21. LAW #1
    Alleles of the same gene segregate from one another at meiosis.
  22. Mitosis
    Makes a complete copy of the entire chromosome set and divides into two sets.
  23. Meiosis
    Alleles segregate
  24. Haploinsufficient
    One copy is not enough

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