Card Set Information
What is a somatic cell?
Vegetative cells that divide by mitosis.
Reproductive cells that give rise to gametes after meiosis.
List and name the DNA base pairs
A (Adenine) pairs with T (Thiamine)
C (Cytosine) pairs with G (Gaunine)
What is Transcription?
The process of DNA being rewritten as RNA and still looking similar.
What is Translation?
DNA and RNA being made into something completely different.
List 6 Methodologies found in genetics.
1. Mutations and mutants
2. Analyzing progeny from controlled matings (crosses)
3. Genetic analysis of biochemical processes through mutations and mutants
4. Microscopic analysis of chromosomes (cytogenetics)
5. Direct analysis of DNA and RNA (cloning, sequencing)
6. Computer analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences (bioinfomatics)
What are the three blotting methods?
1. southern blot
2. western blot
3. Northern blot
Define Allelic Variation
Presence in a population of different forms of a given gene.
Polymorphism = many forms
A change in DNA (or RNA) sequence
Anything that is a change in the nucleic acid sequence
a rare, exceptional individual
a somewhat rare individual
Wild type (normal)
type most commonly found
The mixing of alleles.
: joining gametes. Segregation and crossing over at meiosis.
Describe discontinuous variation
two discreet states
: drosophila flies; normal wings and vestigial wings
Describe Continuous variation
Many different states
Much more common in nature
Much harder to breakdown into 'this' or 'that'
"norm of reaction"
The response of a given genotype to a wide range of environments
Levels of genetic study
Features generally applicable to many organisms
: body plan of insects. some are butterflies and some are ants, but they all have a head, thorax, and abdomen.
Features that are consistent within species but differ between species
: body color of insects
Features that still vary even within a species--can use to understand the roldes of environment and development.
: drosophila eye development.
What is Diploid?
Two of every chromosome
What effects the phenotype of the gene?
Where a mutation in a gene takes place.
Another word for hybrid
Alleles of the same gene segregate from one another at meiosis.
Makes a complete copy of the entire chromosome set and divides into two sets.
One copy is not enough