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What is a somatic cell?
Vegetative cells that divide by mitosis.
Reproductive cells that give rise to gametes after meiosis.
List and name the DNA base pairs
- A (Adenine) pairs with T (Thiamine)
- C (Cytosine) pairs with G (Gaunine)
What is Transcription?
The process of DNA being rewritten as RNA and still looking similar.
What is Translation?
DNA and RNA being made into something completely different.
List 6 Methodologies found in genetics.
- 1. Mutations and mutants
- 2. Analyzing progeny from controlled matings (crosses)
- 3. Genetic analysis of biochemical processes through mutations and mutants
- 4. Microscopic analysis of chromosomes (cytogenetics)
- 5. Direct analysis of DNA and RNA (cloning, sequencing)
- 6. Computer analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences (bioinfomatics)
What are the three blotting methods?
- 1. southern blot
- 2. western blot
- 3. Northern blot
Define Allelic Variation
- Presence in a population of different forms of a given gene.
- Polymorphism = many forms
- A change in DNA (or RNA) sequence
- Anything that is a change in the nucleic acid sequence
a rare, exceptional individual
a somewhat rare individual
Wild type (normal)
type most commonly found
- The mixing of alleles.
- Example: joining gametes. Segregation and crossing over at meiosis.
Describe discontinuous variation
- two discreet states
- example: drosophila flies; normal wings and vestigial wings
Describe Continuous variation
- Many different states
- Much more common in nature
- Much harder to breakdown into 'this' or 'that'
"norm of reaction"
The response of a given genotype to a wide range of environments
Levels of genetic study
- Features generally applicable to many organisms
- example: body plan of insects. some are butterflies and some are ants, but they all have a head, thorax, and abdomen.
- Features that are consistent within species but differ between species
- example: body color of insects
- Features that still vary even within a species--can use to understand the roldes of environment and development.
- example: drosophila eye development.
What is Diploid?
Two of every chromosome
What effects the phenotype of the gene?
Where a mutation in a gene takes place.
Alleles of the same gene segregate from one another at meiosis.
Makes a complete copy of the entire chromosome set and divides into two sets.
One copy is not enough