Bio 130 Ch 11
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Bio 130 Ch 11
What are the four criteria necessary for genetic materila?
Information, replication, transmission, and variation
What are the levels of dna structure?
Nucleotides, strand, double helix, chromosomes, and genome
The building blocks of DNA or RNA.
A linear polmer stand of dna or rna.
The two strands of dna
dna associated with a array of different proteins into a complex structure
The complete compliment of genetic material
DNA is formed of these four nucleotides.
Nucleotides are composed of three components:
Phosphate group, Pentose sugar, and nitrogenous base
what is the pentose sugar in dna?
What are the nitrogenous bases of dna?
Purines and pyrimidines
What are the two purines?
Adenine and guanine
What are the two pyrimidines?
Cytosine and thymine
What are the nucleotides of rna?
RNA nucleotides are composed of three components.
Phosphate group, pentose sugar, nitogenous base
What is the pentose group of rna?
Nitogenous bases of RNA.
Purines and Pyrimidines
Purines of RNA
Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines of RNA
Cytosine and Uracil
This is in reference to bonds: where are sugar carbons attached?
This is in reference to bonds: where are bases attached to?
1' carbon on sugar
this is in reference to bonds: where are the phosphate attached to?
5' carcon on sugar
How are nucleotides bonded?
THis bond links phosphate groups to two sugars
What is the backbone of the DNA?
Phossphates and sugars
THese project away from the backbone.
How is DNA written?
5'-3' Ex: 5'-TACG-3'
What is the chargoff rule?
A pairs with T and G pairs with C. Keeps the width consistent
There are grooves in the space filling model. This is where proteins bind to affect gene expression
There are grooves in the space filling model. This narrow
Newly made dns strands are called.
Original dna strands are called
provides an opening called a replication bubble that forms two replication forks. DNA replication proceeds outward from forks
Origin of replication
Bacteria have how many origin of replication and eukaryotes have how many?
1 and multiple
Binds to DNA and travels 5 to 3 using ATP to separate strand and move fork forward
Relives additional coiling ahead of replication fork
Keep parental strands open to act as templates
Single-strand binding proteins
Covalently links nucleotides
Free nucleotides with three phosphate groups. Breaking covalent bond to release pyrophosphate (two phosphates) provides energy to connect nucleotides
What are some features of dna polymerase?
Cannot begin sythesis on a bare template strand (requires a primer), only works 5' to 3'
The primer for DNA polymerase is?
DNA primase. It makes the primer from RNA. The RNA primer is removed and replaced with DNA later
When the DNA is split and ready for replication what happens to the leading strand?
DNA synthesized in as one long molecule. DNA primase makes a single RNA prime. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides in a 5 to 3 direction as it slides forward
When the DNA is split and ready for replication what happens to the lagging strand?
DNA synthesized 5 to 3 but as Okazaki fragments. Okazaki fragments consist of RNA primers plus DNA
When the DNA is split and ready for replication what happens to both strands?
RNA primers are removed by DNA polymerase and replaced with DNA. DNA ligase joins adjacent DNA fragments
What are the three mechanisms for accuracy?
Hydrogen bonding and dna polymerase
Series of short nucleotide sequences repeated at the ends of chromosomes in eukaryotes
Telomere at 3 does not have a complementary strand and is called a
attaches many copies of DNA repeat sequence to the ends of chromosomes
Shortening of telomeres is correlated with cellular
Discrete unit of genetic material
Chromosomes are composed of?
This is the dna-protein complex
What are the three levels of dna compaction?
DNA wrapping, 30-nm fiber, and radial loop domains