Bio130 Ch 12

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MagusB
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310615
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Bio130 Ch 12
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2015-10-29 15:54:09
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bio 130
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ch 12
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  1. What is the central dogma?
    One gene, one polypeptide
  2. Produces a transcript (RNA copy) of a gene. This messenger RNA (mRNA) specifies the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
    Transcription
  3. Process of synthesizing specific polypeptide on a ribosome using the mRNA template
    Translation
  4. Eukaryotes also have an intervening step called RNA processing where....
    pre-mRNA is processed into active mRNA. Some genes do not encode polypeptides
  5. What are the two types of RNA?
    Structural RNAs and Regulatory RNAs
  6. constitute the genetic material. The “blueprint” for organisms’ characteristics
    Genes
  7. These code for Polypeptides
    Structural genes
  8. act as a protein to play some role in the cell
    One or several polypeptides
  9. determine the structure and function of cells
    Activities of proteins
  10. taken together in an organism determines their traits or characteristics
    Cellular activity
  11. An organized unit of DNA sequences that enables a segment of DNA to be transcribed into RNA and ultimately results in the formation of a functional product
    Gene
  12. Other genes code for RNA itself as a product
    Transfer RNA tRNA and ribosomal rna rRNA
  13. These translates mRNA into amino acids
    tRNA
  14. This rna is part of the ribosomes
    Ribosomal RNA rRNA
  15. What are the three stagess of transcription?
    Initiation, Elongation and termination
  16. In this step of transcription Recognition step. In bacteria, sigma factor causes RNA polymerase to recognize promoter region. Stage completed when DNA strands separate near promoter to form open complex
    Initiation
  17. RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA. Template or coding strand used for RNA synthesis. Noncoding strand is not used. Synthesized 5’ to 3’. Uracil substituted for thymine
    Elongation
  18. RNA polymerase reaches termination sequence. Causes both the polymerase and newly-made RNA transcript to dissociate from DNA
    Termination
  19. What are the three forms of RNA polymerase.
    RNA polymerase I, II, and III
  20. This RNA polymerase transcribes for mRNA
    RNA polymerase II
  21. This Rna polymerase transcribes nonstructural genes for rRNA and tRNA
    RNA Polmerase I and III
  22. Eukaryotic mRNAs are made in a longer pre-mRNA form that requires processing into mature mRNA. What do they contain?
    Inrons and exons.
  23. This modification on mRNA is called splicing, what happens?
    Introns are removed
  24. This modification on mRNA occurs at the end?
    addition of tails and caps
  25. Most structural genes have one or more introns. How are they removed?
    Splicing
  26. What enzyme is used to remove introns?
    Spliceosome
  27. What are spliceosomes composed of snRNPs
  28. Alternative splicing – splicing can occur more than one way to produce different products. rRNA and tRNa are selp splicing, how is this?
    They are ribozymes- RNAs that can catalyze reastions.
  29. 100-200 adenine nucleotides added to 3’ end. Increases stability and lifespan in cytosol. Not encoded in gene sequence
    Poly A tail
  30. sequence of bases in an mRNA molecule. Read in groups of three nucleotide bases or codons
    Genetic code
  31. Specify a particular amino acid
    Codons Also start and stop codons
  32. more than one codon can specify the same amino acid
    Degenerate code
  33. What is the start codon?
    AUG
  34. What is the stop codon?
    UAA, UAG, or UGA
  35. whats is a codon?
    set of three rna nucleotides
  36. 3 RNA nucleotide part of tRNA molecule. Allows binding of tRNA to mRNA codon
    Anticodon
  37. What are some common feature of tRNA?
    Cloverleaf structure, Anticodon, Acceptor stem for amino acid binding
  38. Catalyzes attachment of amino acids to tRNA. one for each of the 20 different amino acids
    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
  39. Overall ribosomes have a shape determined by rRNA. Discrete sites for tRNA binding and polypeptide synthesis.
    P site, A Site, and E Site
  40. P site is?
    Peptisyl site
  41. A site is?
    Aminoacyl site
  42. E site is?
    Exit site

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