Repro2- Mammary Gland

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Mawad
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310618
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Repro2- Mammary Gland
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2015-10-29 18:04:32
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  1. The mammary gland likely evolved from a(n) _________; it is a ___________ gland.
    apocrine sweat gland; compound tubuloalveolar
  2. Are there anatomical barriers b/w the quarters in a cow's mammary?
    two distinct halves; no anatomical barriers b/w rear and front
  3. What is the secretory unit of the mammary gland?
    alveoli (simple myoepithelial cell)
  4. Describe the components of the mammary from smallest to biggest?
    lobule--> lobe--> quarter--> mammary
  5. Growth and development of the mammary gland.
    mammogenesis
  6. Establishment of milk secretion.
    lactogenesis
  7. Maintenance of milk secretion.
    galactopoiesis
  8. Return to non-lactating state.
    Involution
  9. The mammary gland is derived from __(2)__ of the developing embryo.
    ectoderm and mesoderm
  10. Describe the mammary structure and function in a newborn heifer. (5)
    teat are developed, blood and lymph formed, mostly fat tissue, no secretory or glandular structures developed
  11. Describe fetal development of the mammary gland.
    mammary bands--> mammary buds--> primary sprout--> secondary sprout--> canalization
  12. The first 2-3 months after birth, there is _________ growth of the mammary gland; there is no _________ development.
    isometric; secretory alveoli
  13. After 2-3 months of age, there is __________ growth of the mammary; there is no _________ development, but there is elongation of the ___________.
    allometric; alveoli; ductal network in stromal tissue
  14. At approximately 12 months of age, growth of the mammary transitions to ________ growth; there is _________ development.
    isometric; alveoli
  15. What hormones are required for normal mammogenesis? (4)
    estradiol, progesterone [ovarian steroids]; growth hormone [pituitary hormones], placental lactogen [fetal placental hormone]
  16. What is the role of estradiol in mammogenesis?
    induces ductal growth and epithelial cells [secretion of growth factors from stromal cells]
  17. What role does progesterone play in mammogenesis?
    stimulation of ductal side branching and formation of alveolar buds
  18. Estradiol stimulates ________ receptors at the mammary gland.
    progesterone
  19. What role does growth hormone play in mammogenesis?
    stimulates glandular growth during all stages of development; stimulates IGF-1
  20. What role does placental lactogen play in mammogenesis?
    synergizes with estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and GH
  21. How does parturiation affect the hormones involves with lactation?
    increases prolactin, glucocorticoids, GH, and estradiol; decreases the negative influence of progesterone (in the cow to allow her to begin lactating)
  22. Simultaneous increase in __(2)__ concs are required for final mammary growth.
    estradiol and progesterone
  23. The removal of __________ at parturition initiates lactation.
    progesterone
  24. There are no ________ receptors in the mature mammary gland; therefore, after lactation has been initiated, administration of ________ had no effect on milk yield.
    progesterone; exogenous progesterone
  25. Hormone responsible for the onset and establishment of lactation; receptors are increased in the mammary near parturition.
    Prolactin
  26. Prolactin has a key role in ___________ but a lesser role in ___________.
    lactogenesis; galactopoiesis
  27. What are the effects of a reduced basal prolactin?
    reduced milk production
  28. What role do glucocorticoids play in lactogenesis and galactopoiesis? (2)
    differentiation of alveolar secretory cells during lactogenesis; support homeostasis
  29. Lactating cows double the amount of _________ in the mammary cells when compared to non-lactating cows.
    glucocorticoid receptors
  30. What role does oxytocin play in lactogenesis and galactopoiesis? (2)
    milk let down, milk production throughout lactation
  31. What role does insulin play in lactogenesis and galactopoiesis? (1)
    nutrient utilization
  32. What role do the thyroid hormones play in lactogenesis and galactopoiesis? (2)
    maintenance of lactation, support homeostasis
  33. What role does GH play in lactogenesis and galactopoiesis? (2)
    galactopoietic hormone, promotes flux of nutrients and energy in mammary
  34. How does BST administration increase milk secretion? (2)
    directly and indirectly stimulates mammary tissue, effects other tissues to supply nutrients to support milk production
  35. What effects do lactogenesis and galactopoiesis have in body tissues? (2)
    decrease glucose uptake, decrease oxidation of AAs for energy
  36. What effects do lactogenesis and galactopoiesis have in the liver? (1)
    increased gluconeogenesis
  37. What effects do lactogenesis and galactopoiesis have in fat stores? (4)
    decreased uptake of glucose, decreased lipogenesis, increase lipolysis, increased glucose from glycerol via lipolysis
  38. Why is it essential to remove milk a frequent intervals? (4)
    reduce intramammary pressure, increase blood flow, removes substances that inhibit milk production--> increased milk production
  39. How long should the dry period be?
    40-60 days
  40. What is a consequence of extended dry periods?
    >80 days has a negative effect on future milk production
  41. During mammary gland involution, there is _________.
    apoptosis
  42. What histological changes associated with mammary gland involution? (4)
    increased leukocytes and connective tissue, decreased intra-alveolar area and cytoplasmic organelles
  43. Raw materials for milk production are obtained from ________.
    blood
  44. 5 mechanisms of secretion of milk contents.
    milk fat pathway, golgi pathway, transcytosis, transporter channels, paracellular transport
  45. Release of oxytocin from the _______ causes __________ [at the cellular level].
    posterior pituitary; contraction of mammary myoepithelial cells
  46. A mixture of lacteal secretions and blood serum constituents, that is accumulated in the mammary gland during the last weeks of pregnancy, and that is crucial  for the transfer of passive immunity to the newborn.
    colostrum
  47. Pre-partum transfer of Ig from maternal circulation into mammary gland secretion.
    colostrogenesis
  48. Colostrogenesis begins ___________ and stops __________.
    4-6 weeks before parturition; abruptly after calving
  49. Colostrogenesis is influenced by what hormones? (3)
    estrogen, progesterone, prolactin
  50. What are the 2 classes of mastitis pathogens?
    contagious and environmental
  51. What are the 3 most important contagious mastitis pathogens?
    Strep ag, Staph aureus, Mycoplasma
  52. What are the most important/common environmental mastitis pathogens? (8)
    E. coli, Klebsiella, environmental Strep, Coag-neg Staph, Corneybacterium, Enterobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas/Serratia
  53. Pathogens that typically do not infect the mammary gland but can do so with contamination; they are less adapted for survival in the udder.
    environmental mastitis pathogens
  54. Pathogens that originate in the udder that colonize the mammary gland; often cause subclinical infection and have long/chronic duration.
    contagious mastitis pathogens
  55. Contagious mastitis pathogens are generally gram _______.
    positive
  56. Describe Grade 1 mastitis. (3)
    flakes in the milk in 1 or more quarters, no visible inflammation, decrease in milk yield
  57. Describe Grade 2 mastitis. (4)
    abnormal milk in 1 or more quarters, visible udder inflammation, +/- pain/fever, decreased milk yield,
  58. Describe Grade 3 mastitis. (6)
    abnormal milk in 1 or more quarters, visible udder inflammation, pain, change in udder coloration, +/- fever, decreased milk yield
  59. Grade 3 mastitis is associated with _________.
    coliform bacteria--> systemic infection/septicemia
  60. Describe treatment of mastitis. (7)
    dump milk, intramammary antibiotic, systemic antibiotic (if coliform), increase milking frequency, oxytocin, banamine, dehydration/drench

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