Cattle2- FTPI and Calf Scours

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Mawad
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310626
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Cattle2- FTPI and Calf Scours
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2015-11-10 09:21:19
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vetmed cattle2
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vetmed cattle2
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  1. What is the most common cause of FPTI?
    calf not fed colostrum or fed poor quality colostrum
  2. What are the number 1 and 2 causes of death in dairy calves?
    1- diarrhea, 2- BRD
  3. A farm's specific baseline mortality is dependent upon what factors? (3)
    pathogen load, nutrition, hygiene
  4. What is a farm's baseline mortality NOT affected by?
    increased serum protein or IgG
  5. FTPI is associated with increased incidence of... (4)
    neonatal diarrhea, septic joint, pneumonia, and death
  6. Heifers with FPTI have a greater chance of... (2)
    post-weaning mortality, bring culled in the 1st lactation
  7. Why is colostrum so important for calves?
    the placentation of large domestic animals prevents acquisition of IgG by fetus in urtero- calves are born agammglobulinemic
  8. Factors affecting transfer of IgG to calves. (6)
    timing of colostrum ingestion, method, volume, Ig conc in colostrum, age of dam, presence of respiratory acidosis in calf
  9. How does a neonatal calf get respiratory acidosis?
    hypoxia due to dystocia
  10. IgG absorption by calf in maximum up to __________, and declines significantly by __________.
    4hr post-calving; 12-huors post-calving
  11. Presence of _______ in the ________ may be protective to the calf against diarrhea and septicemia.
    antibodies; gut
  12. What should be your goal in preventing FTPI?
    get as much colostrum in the calf as soon as possible; the ability of the gut to non-specifically absorb protein start declining at birth
  13. What is the most important factoring in feeding calves colostrum? (2)
    conc of IgG in colostrum and volume ingested by calf
  14. Dairy calves left to suckle colostrum have _______ rate of failure to acquire IgG.
    higher
  15. Describe the colostrum produced by beef cows.
    small volume of highly concentrated colostrum
  16. Describe the colostrum produced by dairy cows.
    high volume of more dilute colostrum
  17. How much colostrum should you strive to get into a calf and by when?
    4L within 12hr after birth
  18. Describe the out-dated method of weighing colostrum to evaluate quality.
    discard colostrum weighting >8.5kg (dilute) significantly increases percentage of high IgG colostrum- BUT you have less colostrum so less calves get colostrum
  19. Which lactation does the cow produce colostrum with the highest conc of IgG?
    third lactation
  20. When is your window for testing for FPTI?
    32hrs old to 2 weeks old
  21. Why shouldn't you use TP to test for FPTI in calves older than 10 days?
    half life of IgG has passed and you will get false positive for FPTI
  22. What tests are used to evaluate FPTI? (6)
    TP by refractometer, sodium sulfite turbidity, ELISA, GGT, whole blood glutaraldehyde coagulation
  23. Serum protein con of 5.2g/dL is equivalent to __________ IgG/dL.
    1,000mg
  24. For healthy seeming calves, normal serum TP is _________; for moribund calves, normal serum TP is __________. [to be considered adequate passive transfer of immunity]
    5.2g/dL; 5.5g/dL (due to hemoconc)
  25. Describe the sodium sulfite turbidity test for FPTI.
    18% sodium sulfite--> becomes turbid= at least 1000 mg/dL IgG
  26. Describe the lateral flow ELISA test for FPTI.
    pass or fail for adequate IgG (as good as TP or sodium sulfite)
  27. Why can serum GGT be used to evaluate for FPTI?
    calves that have ingested colostrum will have high GGT compared to adult cows
  28. Calves at _________ [age] with serum GGT _________ should be considered to have FPTI.
    <2 weeks; 50IU/L
  29. Describe treatment of FPTI.
    feed calves, keep warm, low stocking density, plasma or whole (problem: prob doesn't need RBCs, and can only give a certain volume before you overload) blood transfusion
  30. Describe the pathogenesis of secretory diarrhea.
    ingestion of pathogen--> secrete enterotoxins that alter cellular cAMP--> increased secretion of Na+, K+, Cl-, bicarb--> water follows--> high volume diarrhea, acidosis, dehydration
  31. What etiologic agents cause secretory diarrhea? (2)
    enterotoxigenic E. coli, some Salmonella
  32. Describe the pathogenesis of malabsorptive diarrhea.
    inflammatory destruction--> increased hydraulic pressure in wall--> increse prostaglandin production--> descruction of absorptive surfaces--> malabsorption and fermentation in large intestine--> osmotic diarrhea
  33. Malabsorptive diarrhea is ________; pathogens that cause it include... (5)
    osmotic; Protozoa, rotavirus, coronavirus, some Salmonella, Clostridium
  34. Pathogens that cause protein-losing enteropathy. (2)
    coccidiosis, Cryptosporidium
  35. With scours, fluid loss if primarily from the _________ and can lead to __________.
    vascular system; cardiovascular collapse
  36. Signs of dehydration in a calf. (5)
    sunken globes, skin tent, CRT, tachycardia, tachypnea
  37. Causes of acidosis in neonatal calves. (2)
    fecal loss of bicarb, acid generation in GI tract
  38. Acidosis due to scours can lead to __________ and _________ ensues; the calf loses suckle reflex and then... (3)
    hyperkalemia; weakness; recumbancy, coma, death
  39. What diarrheal agents can be treated by correcting fluid, electrolyte, acid- base balance alone? With what agents is this not sufficient?
    • Will work for: ETEC, crypto, rotavirus, or coronavirus
    • Insufficient for Salmonella and Clostridium b/c they are invasive and release systemic toxins
  40. 4 critical factors in development of diarrhea in calves.
    immune competence, nutrition, environment, pathogens
  41. What is the most common cause of diarrhea in calves?
    how they're fed: need consistency in schedule, amount their fed, how milk is prepared, etc.
  42. What are sequelae to neonatal diarrhea? (4)
    septicemia, pneumonia, naval ill, joint fections
  43. Bacterial agents of neonatal diarrhea. (3)
    E. coli, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella
  44. Viral agents of neonatal diarrhea. (3)
    rotavirus, coronavirus, BVDv
  45. Protozoal agents of neonatal diarrhea. (2)
    crypto, coccidia
  46. At what age does E. coli usually cause diarrhea in calves?
    days 1-8
  47. At what age does Rotavirus cause diarrhea in calves?
    days 1-5
  48. At what age does coronavirus cause diarrhea in calves?
    days 5-21
  49. At what age does Salmonella cause diarrhea in calves?
    days 6-life
  50. At what age does crypto cause diarrhea in calves?
    days 7-9
  51. Sources of ETEC?
    environmental contamination with feces, feces on dam's udder
  52. What will you see on necropsy of a calf that had ETEC diarrhea? (2)
    bowel normal except for gas and fluid, culture a large number of hemolytic organisms
  53. How do you treat diarrhea caused by ETEC? (4)
    maintain hydration, continue to feed milk, oral electrolytes, give pill with monoclonal antibodies
  54. How can you prevent neonatal diarrhea caused by ETEC?
    vaccinate dam
  55. What neonatal diarrheal etiologic agent is a significant economic and public health concern, which affects all ages of cattle and has a high rate or morbidity and mortality?
    Salmonella
  56. 2 types of salmonella that are host-adapted to cattle?
    S. dublin and newport
  57. Type of Salmonella that can infect humans?
    S. typhimurium
  58. Describe the diarrhea/diseased caused by Salmonella in calves. (9)
    dull, fever, watery diarrhea, septicemia, swollen joints, depression, dehydration, acidosis, endotoxin
  59. How do you diagnose Salmonella diarrhea in a calf?
    culture feces on selenite/tetrathionite selective media
  60. How do you treat Salmonella diarrhea in calves? (4)
    MUST BE VERY AGGRESSIVE: IV fluids, systemic antibiotics for bacteremia (prob won't work-they're all resistant), NSAIDs for treatment of toxemia, Hyper-immune plasma
  61. Risk factors for Salmonella diarrhea. (5)
    dairy water handling, flush systems, lagoons, rodents/bird, overcrowding
  62. How can you prevent Salmonella diarrhea in calves?
    J-5 vaccine for E. coli and SRP vaccine for Salmonella in dam
  63. C. perfringens type A affects _________ calves of _________ age.
    robust, healthy; <10 days of
  64. C. perfringens type A is associated with _______ toxin; clinical signs include... (4)
    alpha; abomasitis, abomasal bloat, ulcers, hemorrhage
  65. Causes of C. perfringens type A diarrhea. (3)
    over feeding, feeding frozen colostrum, decreased gut motility
  66. C. perfringens type C affects calves at _________ old; _________ is a common presentation.
    <10 days; sudden death
  67. C. perfringens type C is associated with ________ toxin.
    beta
  68. What will you see on necropsy of a calf that died of C. perfringens type C diarrhea? (3)
    extensive SI, mesenteric lymph node hemorrhage and necrosis; petechiae in ears
  69. Treatment of C. perfringens type C. (3)
    poor prognosis: hyper-immune serum, penicillin, shock therapy
  70. How do you prevent Clostridium diarrhea? (1)
    vaccine
  71. What calves are usually affected by C. perfringens type D?
    3-10 week old rapidly growing calves of high producing cows
  72. C. perfringens type D causes ____________.
    over-eating disease
  73. C. perfringens type D is associated with _______ toxin, which is associated with _________.
    epsilon; neurologic signs
  74. Rotavirus affects calves ___________ of age; it causes disease that is __________.
    3-5 days; zoonotic, esp to children
  75. Describe the disease manifestation of rotavirus. (2)
    large volume diarrhea, maldigestive diarrhea
  76. Rotavirus does not cause _____________; the virus replicates in the ________.
    systemic viremia; villus tips (causing maldigestion)
  77. Treatment for Rotavirus. (3)
    supportive care, do not stop milk feeding, hygiene
  78. Prevention of Rotavirus. (3)
    vaccinate dam with killed bacterin, vaccinate calf with modified live virus (decreases severity, not incidence), First Defense oral antibodies
  79. Coronavirus affects calves at ___________ age; the virus infects _________ cells.
    5-7 days of; crypt
  80. Coronavirus causes __(2)__ diarrhea; it causes more/less severe diarrhea than rotavirus.
    maldigestive and malabsorptive; more
  81. Treatment of coronavirus. (3)
    supportive care, keep feeding milk, lactaid
  82. Because of synergism b/w the 2 organisms, prevention of coronavirus involves control of _________.
    coccidia
  83. Crypto affects calves at ________ age; it has a _______ infective dose.
    7-10 days of; low
  84. Crypto causes _________ diarrhea; signs include... (3)
    malabsorptive; depression, anorexia, wasting
  85. Diagnosis of crypto is by...
    fecal floatation
  86. What are risk factors for crypto diarrhea? (4)
    herd >200, confined indoors, cement floors, group housing (super hutches)
  87. Treatment of crypto. (5- 2 not approved)
    supportive care, Azithromycin, Vit A supplement; not approved: Nitazoxanide, Halofuginone
  88. Prevention of crypto. (3)
    hygiene, malnutrition, hyperimmune colostrum (?)
  89. What is the significance of the prepatent period of coccidiosis?
    prepatent period exceeds 14 days (usually 21-28d)--> YOU WILL NOT SEE IT IN A 5 DAY OLD CALF.... only seen in older calves
  90. Describe the pathogenesis of coccidia.
    host ingests sporulated oocyst--> rupture in intestine--> multiply in intestinal epithelium--> merozoites rupture out of epithelium as oocytes
  91. Describe the signs of coccidiosis. (7)
    mucoid, dark, tarry stool, bloody diarrhea, tenesmus, rectal prolapse, dehydration
  92. Coccidiosis has ________ morbidity and _________ mortality.
    high; low
  93. It is important to know what about low numbers of coccidia on fecal?
    low numbers on fecal is normal!! don't medicate- let the animal build immunity
  94. Treatment on the herd basis for coccidia. (4)
    reduce stocking density, feed/water management- no feces contamination, keep dry, medicated feed/water
  95. What medications are used at the herd level for prevention of coccidiosis? (4)
    Decoquinate, Lasalocid, Monensin, Amprolium
  96. How do you treat coccidia on an individual basis? (3)
    Sulfadimethoxine (Albon), Amprolium (Corid), supportive care

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