conversion of glucose to lactate or pyruvate is known as
formation of glucose from noncarbohydratesources
conversion of glucose to glycogen
breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Hormones that regulate glucose are?
a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion,insulin action or both is known as?
classification of Diabetes Mellitus inclide?
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
Other Types of Diabetes
which disease is the a leading cause of kidney failure,non traumatic lower limb amputations, and blindness.
7th leading cause of death in the US
is a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
people that have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are said to have ?
Complications of diabetes are?
The major components for treatment of diabetes include:
Diet and exercise
Oral hypoglycaemic therapy
Glucose is lost through _______ at a rate of_________ which can result in a loss of 12 mg/dl if the blood is kept at _________ for ________
5-7% per hour
room temperature for 2 hours.
____________ has been used to inhibit glycolysis
Glucose Testing include
Form of glucose intolerance found during pregnancy ~ 4% of all pregnant women that Can result in fetal complications if not treated is known as?
any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
HgbA1c: The assays include?
Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography
during Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography separation is achieved by?
difference in charge among glycated and non glycated hemoglobin
bio marker of long term glycemic control that reflects the average blood glucose levels over the previous 2-3 months is?
Calculation of HbA1c %HbA1c =?
HbA1c/Total HbA x 100
__________ account for the majority of methods for measuring HbA1c and use ___________ that recognize the glycated amino terminus of the Hb β chains including first four to 10 amino acids.
Three ketone bodies are?
Acetoacetic acid 20%
3-β-Hydroxybutyric acid 78%
Produced by liver through metabolism of fatty acids
Provide a ready energy source from stored lipids
Increase with carbohydrate deprivation or
decreased carbohydrate use
(diabetes, starvation/fasting, high-fat diets)
Specimen requirement for testing ketones ?
fresh serum or urine.
disease associated with a high rate of cardiovascular events and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States and Europe
Annual testing for_________ is recommended for patientswith diabetes and/or kidney disease
which compounds are oxidized by organism to obtain energy?
The major food source and energy supply for the body and are stored primarily in the liver and muscle glycogen
disease states involving carbohydrates are split in which two groups?
carbohydrates are compounds that contain what chemical elements?
classification of crbohydrates is based on what 4 properties?
size of the base carbon chain
location of the C=O functional group
number of sugar units
smallest carbohydrate that contains only 3 carbons is?
simple sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simple form are?
_____ are formed when two monosaccharide units are joined together by glycosidic linkage
give an example of most common disaccharides?
chain of 2-20 sugar units is known as?
____ formed by linkage of many monosaccharide units .
most common are: starch, glycogen
to be a redusing substance the carbohydrate must contain?
ketone or aldehyde group
example of carbohydrate reducing substances include?
the most common non reducing sugar is?
the primary source of energy for humans especially for their brain and nervous system is?
what are the 3 metabolic pathways that used by glucose?
Hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS)
which step is the same in all 3 metabolic pathways?
conversion of glucose into
glucose-6- phosphate using ATP
Control of blood glucose is under what two major hormones. where are both or them produced?
Insuline and Glucagon
produced in pancreas
primary hormone responsible for entry of glucose into the cell
synthesized by Beta cells
known as hypoglycemic agent
decreases glucose levels.
increases glycogenesis, glycolysis, lipogenesis