Mdt160 carbs

Card Set Information

Mdt160 carbs
2015-10-29 21:44:39
Mdt160 carbs

Mdt160 carbs
Show Answers:

  1. how many glucose unite does Maltose contains?
  2. Two forms of carbohydrates are ?
    • Aldose
    • Ketose
  3. sucrose is the combination of what two sugars?
    glucose and fructose
  4. what is composed of glucose and galactose?
  5. conversion of glucose to lactate or pyruvate is known as
  6. formation of glucose from noncarbohydratesources
  7. conversion of glucose to glycogen
  8. breakdown of glycogen to glucose
  9. Hormones that regulate glucose are?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
    • Epinephrine
    • Cortisol
  10. a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion,insulin action or both is known as?
    Diabetes Mellitus
  11. classification of Diabetes Mellitus inclide?
    • Type 1
    • Type 2
    • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
    • Other Types of Diabetes
  12. which disease is the a leading cause of kidney failure,non traumatic lower limb amputations, and blindness.
    7th leading cause of death in the US
  13. is a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
    raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
    pre diabetes
  14. people that have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are said to have ?
  15. Complications of diabetes are?
    • Diabetic retinopathy
    • Diabetic nephropathy
    • heard disease
    • stroke
  16. The major components for treatment of diabetes include:
    • Diet and exercise
    • Oral hypoglycaemic therapy
    • Insulin therapy
  17. Glucose is lost through _______ at a rate of_________ which can result in a loss of 12 mg/dl if the blood is kept at _________ for ________
    • glycolysis
    • 5-7% per hour
    • room temperature for 2 hours.
  18. ____________ has been used to inhibit glycolysis
    Sodium fluoride
  19. Glucose Testing include
    • Spectrophotometric
    • Reflectance Photometry
    • Amperometry
  20. Form of glucose intolerance found during pregnancy ~ 4% of all pregnant women that Can result in fetal complications if not treated is known as?
    Gestational Diabetes
  21. any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
    Gestational Diabetes
  22. HgbA1c: The assays include?
    • Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography
    • Affinity chromatography
    • Immunoassays
  23. during Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography separation is achieved by?
    difference in charge among glycated and non glycated hemoglobin
  24. bio marker of long term glycemic control that reflects the average blood glucose levels over the previous 2-3 months is?
  25. Calculation of HbA1c %HbA1c =?
    HbA1c/Total HbA x 100
  26. __________ account for the majority of methods for measuring HbA1c and use ___________ that recognize the glycated amino terminus of the Hb β chains including first four to 10 amino acids.
    • immunoassays 
    • antibodies
  27. Three ketone bodies are?
    • Acetone 2%
    • Acetoacetic acid 20%
    • 3-β-Hydroxybutyric acid 78%
  28. Produced by liver through metabolism of fatty acids
    Provide a ready energy source from stored lipids
    Increase with carbohydrate deprivation or
    decreased carbohydrate use 
    (diabetes, starvation/fasting, high-fat diets)
  29. Specimen requirement for testing ketones ?
    fresh serum or urine.
  30. disease associated with a high rate of cardiovascular events and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States and Europe
  31. Annual testing for_________ is recommended for patientswith diabetes and/or kidney disease
  32. which compounds are oxidized by organism to obtain energy?
    • carbohydrates
    • amino acids
    • lipids
  33. The major food source and energy supply for the body and are stored primarily in the liver and muscle glycogen
  34. disease states involving carbohydrates are split in which two groups?
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Hypoglycemia
  35. carbohydrates are compounds that contain what chemical elements?
    • C
    • H
    • O
    • C=O
    • -OH
  36. classification of crbohydrates is based on what 4 properties?
    • size of the base carbon chain
    • location of the C=O functional group
    • number of sugar units
    • stereochemistry
  37. smallest carbohydrate that contains only 3 carbons is?
  38. simple sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simple form are?
    ex: glucose
  39. _____ are formed when two monosaccharide units are joined together by glycosidic linkage
  40. give an example of most common disaccharides?
    • maltose 
    • lactose
    • sucrose
  41. chain of 2-20 sugar units is known as?
  42. ____ formed by linkage of many monosaccharide units .
    most common are: starch, glycogen
  43. to be a redusing substance the carbohydrate must contain?
    ketone or aldehyde group
  44. example of carbohydrate reducing substances include?
    • glucose
    • maltose
    • fructose
    • lactose
    • galactose
  45. the most common non reducing sugar is?
  46. the primary source of energy for humans especially for their brain and nervous system is?
  47. what are the 3 metabolic pathways that used by glucose?
    • Embden-Meyerhof
    • Hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS)
    • Glycogenesis
  48. which step is the same in all 3 metabolic pathways?
    • conversion of glucose into
    • glucose-6- phosphate using ATP
  49. Control of blood glucose is under what two major hormones. where are both or them produced?
    • Insuline and Glucagon
    • produced in pancreas
  50. primary hormone responsible for entry of glucose into the cell
    synthesized by Beta cells 
    known as hypoglycemic agent
    decreases glucose levels.
    increases glycogenesis, glycolysis, lipogenesis
    decreases glycogenolysis