East Asia I - Test 2

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cschnyer
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310652
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East Asia I - Test 2
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2015-11-24 00:01:57
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rutgers camden
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Test 2 East Asia *until koan; red turban rebellion - Samguk Yusa; shoen - Heiji Inicident
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  1. Saichō
    • Who/What: founder of the esoteric Tendai sect of Buddhism & its head temple (Mt. Hiei near Kyoto)
    • Date: late 700s/early 800s
    • Important because: opened up Buddhism (moved away from the state Buddhism in Nara, became more focused on individuals)
  2. Tendai
    • Who/What: Chinese form of syncretic Buddhism generally supported by the north
    • Date: (discovered by Japanese) c. 804
    • Important because: within this sect, anyone can become enlightened from asceticism, especially with the Lotus Sutra
  3. Kūkai
    • Who/What: founder of esoteric Shingon sect and its head temple
    • Date: 774-835
    • Important because: made Enlightenment more available to the public; in opposition with Saicho
  4. Shingon
    • Who/What: Japanese Buddhist sect generally supported by the south that says Enlightenment can be reached through esoteric tantric rituals
    • Date: late 700s/early 800s
    • Important because: made Enlightenment more available to the public
  5. Sōhei
    • Who/What: Buddhist warrior monks that used long curved spears
    • Date: during feudal Japan
    • Important because: most weren't actual monks, but hired thugs
  6. Hōnen
    • Who/What: founder of the Pureland sect of Buddhism in Japan
    • Date: early 1100-early 1200s
    • Important because: dedicated his entire life to Amida, chanting the name as often as possible
  7. Pure Land
    • Who/What: most popular sect of Buddhism brought to Japan by Honen
    • Date: brought to Japan 1100/1200s
    • Important because: messianic aka "Poor Man's Buddhism" because Enlightenment can be gained by anyone
  8. Amida
    • Who/What: transcendent Buddha who vowed to save all beings if they place their faith in him 
    • Date: 600s
    • Important because: taught in same way as Pure Land Buddhism - by praising him, a person could be assured of their transportation to the "blissful Pure Land" of the Amida
  9. Shinran
    • Who/What: disciple of Honen
    • Date: late 1100s-mid 1200s
    • Important because: founder of the new Pure Land sect, Shin Buddhism, the most widely practiced sect of Buddhism in Japan
  10. Nichiren
    • Who/What: founder of the Nichiren sect
    • Date: 1200s
    • Important because: zealot, so he got into fights with other sects; claimed the only way to Enlightenment was through chanting the name of "Lotus Sutra"
  11. Lotus Sutra
    • Who/What: the complete teachings of Buddha
    • Date: most appeared by 200 AD
    • Important because: helps towards the path of Enlightenment (the only way, according to Nichiren)
  12. Zen
    • Who/What: aka "Thinking Man's Buddhism" - Enlightenment gained w/ lots of meditation and asceticism
    • Date: Tang Dynasty
    • Important because: Enlightenment achievable by anyone
  13. Eisai
    • Who/What: founder of the Rinzai Zen sect of Buddhism
    • Date: mid 1100s - early 1200s
    • Important because: brought back tea to Japan from trips to China
  14. Rinzai
    • Who/What: sect of Zen Buddhism founded by Eisai
    • Date: came to Japan late 1100s
    • Important because: more popular sect of Japanese Zen Buddhism within Japan
  15. Dōgen
    • Who/What: monk who founded the Soto Zen sect of Buddhism
    • Date: 1200s
    • Important because: sect he founded became more popular in the west/outside of Japan
  16. Sōtō
    • Who/What: Zen Buddhist sect founded by Dogen
    • Date: 1200s
    • Important because: popular Zen Buddhist sect outside of Japan
  17. kōan
    • Who/What: a special question, saying, problem, or object to meditate on (i.e. rock garden; "What color is the wind?")
    • Date: 1100s
    • Important because: used in Rinzai Zen sect; rejected by Dogen in Soto Zen sect
  18. Song
    • Who/What: high-point of Chinese culture
    • Date: 900s-1200s (both Northern and Southern)
    • Important because: built largest army to date (1 million soldiers, but they were bad at fighting)
  19. Khitans
    • Who/What: a nomadic people from areas of Mongolia and Manchuria
    • Date: 800s-1100s
    • Important because: founded Liao Dynasty
  20. Tanguts
    • Who/What: founded the Western Xia/Tangut Dynasty
    • Date: 1000s-early 1200s
    • Important because: used two different law codes for different people in the kingdom - one for "Chinese" (farmers) and one for Tanguts (sheepherders)
  21. Jurchens
    • Who/What: horseback tribe from the steppes that are known for raising good horses
    • Date: 1100s
    • Important because: founded the Jin Dynasty
  22. Annam
    • Who/What: Chinese word for Vietnam
    • Date: Ming Dynasty 
    • Important because: Chinese prononciation led to the English pronunciation
  23. Li Qingzhao
    • Who/What: China's greatest female poet
    • Date: late 1000s - mid-1100s
    • Important because: married for love and remarried (uncommon for this time)
  24. Neo-Confucianism
    • Who/What: everyone has their place and needs to stay in it
    • Date: late Song Dynasty
    • Important because: women lost all of their right and freedoms
  25. Zhu Xi
    • Who/What: founder of Neo-Confucianist "School of Principle"
    • Date: early 1100s-1200
    • Important because: School of Principle was the more successful branch of Neo-Confucianism
  26. Genghis Khan
    • Who/What: founder of the Mongol Empire
    • Date: mid 1100s - early 1200s
    • Important because: had control of what continued to become the largest land empire in the world
  27. Kublai Khan
    • Who/What: grandson of Genghis Khan
    • Date: 1200s
    • Important because: founder of China's Yuan Dynasty
  28. Marco Polo
    • Who/What: Italian explorer who traveled into China & claims (thought unlikely true) he met Genghis Khan
    • Date: mid 1200s - early 1300s
    • Important because: wrote the first European account of Japan's existence
  29. Yuan
    • Who/What: ruling dynasty established by Kublai Khan
    • Date: 1200s
    • Important because: united North and South Song
  30. Ming
    • Who/What: dynasty founded by peasant Zho Yuanzheng
    • Date: late 1300s - mid-1600s
    • Important because: emulated the Tang Dynasty
  31. Red Turban Rebellion
    • Who/What: uprising influenced by the White Lotus Society
    • Date: mid-1300s
    • Important because: overthrew the Yuan Dynasty of China
  32. Hongwu
    • Who/What: founder of the Ming Dynasty in China
    • Date: 1300s
    • Important because: conquered Mongol-controlled Yuan Dynasty, forcing them back to the steppes
  33. Yongle
    • Who/What: third emperor of the Ming Dynasty
    • Date: mid 1300s-early 1400s
    • Important because: rebelled against his nephew, the emperor, along with the eunuchs to take control
  34. Treasure Fleets
    • Who/What: (possibly massive) Chinese ships commanded by Zheng He that went even as far as Africa to gain tributes/loyalty from other countries
    • Date: Ming Dynasty
    • Important because: ccontroversial with modern scholars if they were as massive as some accounts claim
  35. Zheng He
    • Who/What: admiral of famous Treasure Fleets of China
    • Date: late 1300s - early 1400s
    • Important because: commanded 7 voyages that reached as far as Africa, gaining tributes and loyalty of far-out countries
  36. Parhae
    • Who/What: state to the north in Korea, formed to unite against the Tang and drive them out from Manchuria
    • Date: formed in 698
    • Important because: lasted almost 200 years as an independent state
  37. Hyech'o
    • Who/What: Buddhist monk from Silla who studied Esoteric Buddhism in Tang China
    • Date: 700s
    • Important because: brought back the Buddhist Sutras to Korea
  38. Wonhyo
    • Who/What: Buddhist monk (aka "Father of Korean Buddhism") who became known for his writings on Korean Buddhist tradition
    • Date: 600s
    • Important because: synthesized all known Buddhist sects into unified Korean Buddhism
  39. Sol Ch'ong
    • Who/What: Confucian scholar who translated the Confucian ideas into a Korean context
    • Date: 650-early 700s
    • Important because: standardized the Korean writing system (Idu) with Chinese characters
  40. yangban
    • Who/What: social class in Korea comprised of the rich/ruling elite
    • Date: Choson Dynasty
    • Important because: oversaw agrarian bureaucracy
  41. sangmin
    • Who/What:  Merchants, artisans, farmers – commoners, who worked to survive
    • Date: Choson Dynasty
    • Important because: foundation of Choson society
  42. nobi
    • Who/What: social class of Korea comprised of hereditary, chattel slaves
    • Date: Choson Dynasty
    • Important because: major part of Korean society, being up to about 30% of the population
  43. Kyon Hwon
    • Who/What: founder of Korean kingdom, Later Paekche
    • Date: late 800s-early 900s
    • Important because: stories of his life found in both the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa
  44. Wang Kon
    • Who/What: founder of Later Koguryo/Koryo Dynasty
    • Date: late 800s - early 900s
    • Important because: this dynasty lasted from early 900s - late 1300s
  45. Ten Injunctions
    • Who/What: rules issued by Wang Kon to his successors on how to maintain a peaceful kingdom
    • Date: early 900s
    • Important because: had an impact on how Koreans functioned within society (clearly, as this dynasty lasted until late 1300s)
  46. Myochong
    • Who/What: Buddhist monk who believed Korea had weakened from Confucian ideals
    • Date: 1100s
    • Important because: wanted war with China - convinced king to move capital and almost convince invasion of China, but was executed
  47. Kim Pusik
    • Who/What: Confucian scholar, statesman, and general of Korea
    • Date: late 1000s - mid-1100s
    • Important because: wrote the Samguk Sagi, earliest history of Korea
  48. Samguk Sagi
    • Who/What: Confucian view of Korean history that was approved of by Koreans until very recently
    • Date: 1100s
    • Important because: earliest written history of Korea
  49. Iryon
    • Who/What: Buddhist monk who didn't like the Samguk Sagi for being too deferential to China
    • Date: 1200s
    • Important because: wrote Samguk Yusa as a nationalistic and Buddhist response to the Samguk Sagi
  50. Samguk Yusa
    • Who/What: history of Korea written from a nationalistic and Buddhist perspective by Iryon
    • Date: 1200s 
    • Important because: written in response to the Samguk Sagi
  51. Choson
    • Who/What: Korean dynasty that restricted Buddhism
    • Date: late 1300s - 20th century
    • Important because: longest Korean dynasty
  52. Yi Songgye
    • Who/What: founder of the Choson Dynasty
    • Date: late 1300s
    • Important because: didn't  declare himself king for 4 years, building loyalty in the courts
  53. Yongsangun
    • Who/What: a Choson Dynasty Emperor
    • Date: reigned late 1400s to early 1500s
    • Important because: was so crazy that him and his sons and concubines were all exiled and executed
  54. Sejong the Great
    • Who/What: Emperor of the Choson Dynasty who was the most competant
    • Date: reigned early to mid 1400s
    • Important because: created Korean alphabet and the Hall of Worthies
  55. Hangul
    • Who/What: Korean phonetic alphabet created by Sejong the Great and his men
    • Date: Oct. 9, 1446
    • Important because: made written language accessible to the poor/uneducated
  56. kisaeng
    • Who/What: female entertainers from the lower classes
    • Date: Choson Dynasty
    • Important because: they were the only women allowed to become educated by studying language, music, and art
  57. mudang
    • Who/What: Korean female shamanists from animism religion
    • Date: early 1400s
    • Important because: still practiced today, acting as an intermediary btwn the spirits/gods and humans
  58. Imjin War
    • Who/What: Japanese samurai (who were warring on and off for 400 years) invaded Korea, (who had been peaceful for 600 years)
    • Date: 1592-1598
    • Important because: most of Korea was destroyed, but Koreans consider the war a great victory
  59. Yi Sunsin
    • Who/What: Korean admiral who used turtle ships to defeat Japanese navy
    • Date: mid-late 1500s
    • Important because: seen as single greatest war hero in Korean history
  60. turtle ship
    • Who/What: Korean ramming ship that had a rounded, spiked top with a massive iron tip that was very maneuverable
    • Date: late 1500s
    • Important because: saved and decided the Imjin War
  61. shoen
    • Who/What: system of large tax-free, private estates in Japan
    • Date: 8th century-15th century
    • Important because: intended to create incentive for cultivation by peasants, growing the potential tax base
  62. Go-Sanjo
    • Who/What: first emperor to rule and reign in Japan for over 200 years
    • Date: mid-late 1000s
    • Important because: abdicated throne intentionally, starting idea for system of choosing next emperor
  63. Shirakawa
    • Who/What: Go-Sanjo's son
    • Date: late 1000s-early 1100s
    • Important because: first time a retired emperor ruled through his reigning son
  64. bushi
    • Who/What: Japanese word for samurai
    • Date: 800s?
    • Important because: mounted archers who are full time soldiers
  65. Sakanoue no Tamuramaro
    • Who/What: Japanese general
    • Date: mid 700s - early 800s
    • Important because: first samurai who defeated Emishi
  66. Taira
    • Who/What: one of the 4 major samurai clans that dominated Japan
    • Date: Heian Period, late 700s - late 1100s
    • Important because: formed first samurai dominated government
  67. Minamoto
    • Who/What: one of the 4 major samurai clans that dominated Japan
    • Date: Heian Period, late 700s - late 1100s
    • Important because: won Gempei war, leading to the founding of the Kamakura shogunate
  68. Taira Masakado
    • Who/What: a samurai who led a rebellion against the central gov't of Kyoto
    • Date: Heian Period, 900s
    • Important because: such a threat to Japan that the court sent a huge army to kill him and his followers
  69. Fujiwara Sumitomo
    • Who/What: a samurai sent to get rid of Japanese pirates (he was successful)
    • Date: Heian Period, 900s
    • Important because: he became pirate himself and built a pirate kingdom that lasted for 5 years with multiple bases and 1,000 ships
  70. Taira Kiyomori
    • Who/What: Japanese military leader who established first samurai-dominated gov't
    • Date: 1100s
    • Important because: with help, suppress the Hogen rebellion
  71. Hogen Incident
    • Who/What: Japanese civil war disputing imperial succession
    • Date: mid-1100s
    • Important because: foundation of the dominance of the samurai clans
  72. Heiji Incident
    • Who/What: Japanese civil war disputing political power between Taira and Minamoto samurai clans
    • Date: mid-1100s
    • Important because: Taira clan made mistake of allowing other members of Minamoto family survive (determined their future demise)
  73. Minamoto Yoritomo
    • Who/What: founder/first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate 
    • Date: mid-late 1100s
    • Important because: during Gempei War, asserted control over Eastern Japan = the first time imperial capital not fully in charge
  74. Minmoto Yoshitsune
    • Who/What: brother of Yoritomo; general of the Minamoto clan
    • Date: mid-late 1100s
    • Important because: faithfully served his brother, but was killed for fear of plotting an overthrow
  75. Benkai
    • Who/What: giant warrior monk who served Yoshitsune
    • Date: mid-late 1100s
    • Important because: popular culture hero, even in modern Japan
  76. Gempei War
    • Who/What: conflict between Taira and Minamoto clans
    • Date: late Heian Period, late 1100s
    • Important because: resulted in fall of Taira & establishment of Kamakura shogunate under Minamoto Yoritomo
  77. Tale of the Heike
    • Who/What: most famous Japanese epic
    • Date: fully compiled by early 1300s
    • Important because: became a national symbol for Japan and gave basis for samurai stereotypes (i.e. "Death before dishonor")
  78. Tomoe Gozen
    • Who/What: female samurai warrior (may not have existed)
    • Date: late 1100s
    • Important because: believed to have fought and survived Gempei War; concubine of Minamoto no Yoshinaka
  79. Dan-no-ura
    • Who/What: location of major sea battle in Gempei War where Taira were defeated
    • Date: late 1100s
    • Important because: where child emperor, Antoku, was taken by his grandmom - jumped off ship with him, imperial sword, gem, and mirror (drowned; sword never found)
  80. shogun
    • Who/What: hereditary military dictator in Japan
    • Date: 1100s- 1800s
    • Important because: held almost absolute power over territory through their military powers
  81. bakufu
    • Who/What: 
    • Date: 
    • Important because:
  82. Minamoto Yoriie
    • Who/What: 2nd shogun of Japan's Kamakura shogunate
    • Date: late 1100s - early 1200s
    • Important because: criticized for abandoning father's policies, powers taken away and given to council headed by grandfather (from Hojo clan); tried to subjugate Hojo clan, led to assassination
  83. Minamoto Sanetomo
    • Who/What: 3rd shogun of Kamakura shogunate in Japan
    • Date: late 1100s - early 1200s
    • Important because: last head of the Minamoto clan in Japan
  84. Hojo Tokimasa
    • Who/What: 
    • Date: 
    • Important because:
  85. Hojo Masako
    • Who/What: 
    • Date: 
    • Important because:
  86. Go-Toba
    • Who/What: 
    • Date: 
    • Important because:
  87. Jokyu War
    • Who/What: 
    • Date: 
    • Important because:
  88. kamikaze
    • Who/What: 
    • Date: 
    • Important because:
  89. Kamakura
    • Who/What: shogunate founded by Minamoto Yoritomo
    • Date: 1100s
    • Important because: extraordinary events from the Kamakura Period influenced many stories, poems, and even much of modern culture (TV, manga, Kabuki plays, etc.)

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