Drugs and Society Test 2

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  1. caffeine
    a xanthine stimulant found in coffee, tea, chocolate, soft drinks, and several mmedications
  2. xanthines
    a family of CNS stimulant drugs that includes caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine
  3. theobromine
    a xanthine stimulant found in chocolate
  4. theophylline
    a xanthine stimulant found in small amounts in tea; used as an anti-asthma medication
  5. Coffea arabica
    a type of coffee bean native to the Middle East but now grown principally in South America; typically referred to simply as arabica
  6. Coffea robusta
    a type of coffee bean grown principally in Indonesia, Brazil, and Africa
  7. Camellia sinensis
    the plant from which tea leaves are obtained
  8. cocoa bean pods
    parts of the cacao tree that are the raw material for cocoa and chocolate; not to be confused with cocoa, the source of cocaine
  9. cocoa butter
    the fat content of the cocoa bean
  10. chocolate liquor
    a deep-colored pasta made when roasted cocoa beans are heated so that the cocoa butter in the beans melts
  11. baking chocolate
    a hardened paste, consisting of chocolate liquor, produced by heating roasted cocoa beans
  12. adenosine
    an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is blocked, or neutralized, by caffeine and other xanthines; the action on adenosine receptors in the body is the basis for the stimulant properties of these drugs
  13. caffeinism
    a dangerous state of behavioral and physiological over-stimulation from a very large dose of caffeine
  14. lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
    a synthetic serotonin-related hallucinogenic drug
  15. hallucinogens
    a class of drugs producing distortions in perception and body image of moderate doses
  16. ergot
    a fungus infecting rye and other grains
  17. ergotism
    a physical and/or psychological disorder acquired by ingesting ergot-infested grains; one form of ergotism involves gangrene and eventual loss of limbs;the other form is associated with convulsions, disordered thinking, and hallucinations
  18. synesthesia
    a subjective sensation in a modality other than the one being stimulated; an example is a visual experience when a sound is heard
  19. psilocybin
    a serotonin-related hallucinogenic drug originating from a species of mushroom
  20. psilocin
    a brain chemical related to serotonin, resulting from the ingestion of psilocybin
  21. bufotenine
    a serotonin-related drug obtained either from a bean plant in Central and South America or from the skin of a particular type of food
  22. cyanosis
    a tendency for the skin to turn bluish purple; it can be a side effect of the drug bufotenine
  23. lysergic acid amine (LAA)
    a hallucinogenic drug found in morning glory seeds, producing effects similar to those of LSD
  24. dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
    a short-acting hallucinogenic drug
  25. harmine
    a serotonin-related hallucinogenic drug frequently used by South American shamans in healing rituals
  26. mescaline
    a norepinephrine-related hallucinogenic drug; its source is the peyote cactus
  27. peyote
    a species of cactus that is the source for the hallucinogenic drug mescaline
  28. DOM
    a synthetic norepinephrine-related hallucinogenic drug, derived from amphetamine; DOM or a combination of DOM and LSD is often referred to by the street name STP
  29. MDMA (ecstasy)
    there is a growing consensus of opinion that this hallucinogenic drug's psycho-therapeutic benefits, although there are significant adverse physical and psychological side effects
  30. Amanita muscaria
    a species of mushroom containing the hallucinogenic drug ibotenic acid
  31. atropine
    an anticholinergic hallucinogenic drug derived from the Atropa belladonna plant
  32. scopolamine
    an anticholinergic hallucinogenic drug; also called hyoscine
  33. hyoscyamine
    an anticholinergic hallucinogenic drug found in mandrake, henbane, and various species of the datura plant
  34. Atropa belladonna
    a plant species, also called deadly nightshade, whose berries can be highly toxic; it is the principal source of atropine
  35. Mandrake
    a potato-like plant containing anticholinergic hallucinogenic drugs
  36. henbane
    an herb containing anticholinergic hallucinogenic drugs
  37. datura stramonium
    a species of the datura family of plants with hallucinogenic properties; in the US, the plant is called jimsonweed
  38. phencyclidine (PCP)
    a dissociative anesthetic hallucinogen that produces disorientation, agitation, aggressive behavior, analgesia, and amnesia; it has various street names, including angel dust
  39. ketamine
    a dissociative anesthetic hallucinogen related to PCP
  40. Salvia [divinorum]
    a Mexican leafy herb with short-duration hallucinogenic effects
  41. Cannabis sativa
    a plant species, commonly called hemp, from which marijuana and hashish are obtained
  42. cannabinoids
    ant of several dozen active substances in marijuana and other cannabis products
  43. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    the active psychoactive ingredient in marijuana and hashish
  44. marijuana/marihuana
    the most commonly available psychoactive drug originating from the cannabis plant; the THC concentration ranges from approximately 1-6%
  45. sinsemilla
    a form of marijuana obtained from the unpollinated or seedless portion of the cannabis plant; it has a higher THC concentration than regular marijuana, as high as 15%
  46. hashish
    a drug containing the resin of cannabis flowers; the THC concentration ranges from approximately 8-14%
  47. hashish oil
    a drug produced by boiling hashish, leaving a potent psychoactive residue; the THC concentration ranges from approximately 15-60%
  48. hashish oil crystals
    a solid form of hashish oil
  49. bhang
    a liquid form of marijuana popular in India
  50. reefer/joint
    a marijuana cigarette
  51. anandamide
    a naturally occurring chemical in the brain that fits into THC-sensitive receptor sites, producing many of the same effects as marijuana
  52. amotivational syndrome
    a state of listlessness and personality change involving a generalized apathy and indifference to long-range plans
  53. gateway hypothesis
    the idea that the abuse of a specific drug will inherently lead to the abuse of other, more harmful drugs
  54. Mary Dolin treated symptoms of what disease by smoking marijuana?
    Multiple Sclerosis
  55. dronabinol
    a prescription drug containing THC; brand name is Marinol
  56. nabilone
    a prescription drug containing a synthetic variation of THC; brand name is Cesamet
  57. decriminalization
    the policy of making the possession of small amounts of a drug subject to a small fine but not criminal prosecution
  58. ethyl alcohol
    the product of fermentation of natural sugars; it is generally referred to simply as alcohol, though several types of non-ethyl alcohol exist
  59. fermentation
    the process of converting natural sugars into ethyl alcohol by the action of yeasts
  60. brewing
    the process of producing beer from barley grain
  61. barley malt
    barley after it has been soaked in water, sprouts have grown,  sprouts have been removed, and the mixture has been dried and crushed to a powder
  62. mash
    fermented barley malt, following liquefaction and combination with yeasts
  63. distillation
    a process by which fermented liquid is boiled and then cooled, so that the condensed product contains a higher concentration of alcohol than before
  64. distilled spirits
    the liquid product of distillation, also known as liquor
  65. aqua vitae
    a brandy, the first distilled liquor in recorded history
  66. temperance movement
    the social movement in the US, beginning in the 19th century, that advocated the renunciation of alcohol consumption
  67. oxidation
    a chemical process in alcohol metabolism
  68. alcohol dehydrogenase
    in enzyme in the stomach and liver that converts alcohol into acetaldehyde
  69. acetaldehyde
    a by-product of alcohol metabolism, produced through the action of alcohol dehydrogenase
  70. acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
    an enzyme in the liver that converts acetaldehyde to acetic acid in alcohol metabolism
  71. acetic acid
    a by-product of alcohol metabolism, produced through the action of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
  72. blood-alcohol concentration (BAC)
    the number of grams of alcohol in the blood relative to 100 milliliters of blood, expressed as a percentage
  73. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    a hormone that acts to reabsorb water in the kidneys prior to excretion from the body
  74. antidiuresis
    a condition resulting from excessive reabsorption of water in the kidneys
  75. congeners
    non-ethyl alcohols, oils, and other organic substances found in trace amounts in some distilled spirits
  76. blackout
    Amnesia concerning events occurring during the period of alcoholic intoxication, even though consciousness had been maintained at that time
  77. balanced placebo design
    an experimental design that can distinguish psychological effects (due to subjective expectations) from physiological effects (due to the pharmacology of the drug)
  78. snuff
    a quantity of finely shredded or powdered tobacco; modern forms of snuff are available in either dry or moist forms
  79. snuffing
    the ingestion of snuff either by inhalation or by absorption through tissue in the nose
  80. cigars
    tightly rolled quantities of dried tobacco leaves
  81. cigarettes
    rolls of shredded tobacco wrapped in paper, today usually fitted at the mouth end with a filter
  82. sidestream smoke/environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)/secondary smoke
    tobacco smoke that is inhaled by nonsmokers/in the atmosphere from the burning cigarettes of nearby smokers; also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke
  83. mainstream smoke
    the smoke inhaled directly from cigarettes or other tobacco products
  84. particulate phase
    those components of smoke that consist of particles
  85. tar
    a sticky material found in the particulate phase of tobacco smoke and other pollutants in the air
  86. gaseous phase
    the portion of tobacco smoke that consists of gases
  87. carbon monoxide
    an extremely toxic gas that prevents blood cells from carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
  88. cillia
    small hair cells
  89. cilliary escalator
    the pushing of inhaled foreign particles, which might interfere with breathing, upward from the air passages into the throat, where they can be swallowed and excreted through the gastrointestinal tract
  90. nicotine
    the prime psychoactive drug in tobacco products
  91. titration hypothesis
    the idea that smokers will adjust their smoking of cigarettes in such a way as to maintain a steady input of nicotine into the body
  92. coronary heart disease (CHD)
    disease that damages the heart as a result of a restriction of blood flow through coronary arteries
  93. arteriosclerosis
    a disease in which blood flow is restricted because the walls of arteries harden and lose their elasticity
  94. atherosclerosis
    a disease in which blood flow is restricted because of the buildup of fatty deposits inside arteries
  95. ischemic stroke
    a disease in which there is an interruption of or reduction in blood flow to the brain, causing paralysis, sensory loss, cognitive deficits, or a combination of neuro-psychological effects
  96. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    a group of diseases characterized by impaired breathing due to an abnormality in the air passages
  97. chronic bronchitis
    a respiratory disease involving inflammation of bronchial tissue following a buildup of excess mucus in air passages
  98. emphysema
    an enlargement of air sacs in the lungs and abnormalities in the air sac walls, causing great difficulty in breathing
  99. carcinomas
    cancerous tumors or growths
  100. leukoplakia
    small white spots inside the mouth and nasal cavity, indicating precancerous tissue
  101. erythroplakia
    small red spots inside the mouth and nasal cavity, indicating precancerous tissue
  102. nitrosamines
    a group of carcinogenic compounds found in tobacco
  103. moist snuff
    damp, finely shredded tobacco, placed inside the cheek or alongside the gum under the lower lip

Card Set Information

Drugs and Society Test 2
2015-11-04 00:00:40
rutgers camden

Hallucinogens, Marijuana, Alcohol, Nicotine, Caffeine
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