Anatomy Exam 3

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Anatomy Exam 3
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2015-11-02 22:27:13
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  1. What does afferent mean?
    • sensory
    • flowing into the CNS (input)
  2. What does efferent mean
    • motor
    • flowing out, away from CNS
  3. 2 components of sensory nervous system
    somatic sensory- general and special senses like touch, pain, smell, hearing, balance, etc (senses you can voluntarily pay attention to)

    visceral sensory- temperature and stretch of organ muscles (you aren't conscious of them, except for when you've eaten too much or are constipated)
  4. 2 components of motor nervous system
    somatic motor- voluntary impulses to skeletal muscles 

    • autonomic motor- regulates smooth and cardiac muscles without out control (visceral). for example, heart beating or growling stomach 
    • parasympathetic-homeostasis
    • sympathetic-fight or flight

  5. Which system is frontal lobe? type? function?
    • CNS 
    • primary motor 
    • speech area
    • monitors behavior and control based on judgment and foresight (higher intellectual functions)
  6. Which system is parietal lobe? type? function?
    • CNS 
    • sensory 
    • evaluate shape and texture, tastes, smell sensations
  7. Which system is temporal lobe? function?
    • CNS 
    • auditory and olfactory (smell)
    • interpretation
  8. Which system is frontal lobe? function?
    • CNS 
    • vision
  9. Which system is the insula? function?
    • CNS 
    • taste

  10. what kind of neuron is this? 
    is it a motor or sensory function?
    • multipolar neuron 
    • motor and association

  11. what kind of neuron is this? 
    motor or sensory function?
    • bipolar neuron 
    • sensory function

  12. what kind of neuron is this? 
    motor or sensory function?
    • unipolar neuron 
    • sensory function

  13. what is this? 
    what is its function?
    (starlike shape)

    -most common type of glial cell 

    • function
    • -forms blood-brain barrier
  14. what are glial cells? 
    what are the 4 types of glial cells
    -supporting cells

    • astrocytes
    • ependymal cells 
    • microglial cells 
    • oligodendrocytes

  15. what is this? 
    function?
    • oligodendrocyte
    • CNS myelination

  16. what is this? 
    function? 
    what does it create? 
    what does that produce?
    • ependymal cell 
    • they are the epithelial for the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. They create the choroid plexus, which produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

  17. what is this? 
    function?
    • microglial cell 
    • they replicate in response to an infection and perform phagocytic activity like a macrophage
  18. what is the difference between the myelination of a oligodendrocyte versus a Schwann cell?
    • oligodendrocytes cover the portions of many different axons like electrical tape around a wire. It can myelinate a 1mm portion of many axons 
    • -a myelin sheath formed in the CNS 

    • Schwann cell
    • It can myelinate a 1mm portion of only one axon. So there are many along one axon creating nodes of Ranvier. 
    • The myelination is the overlapping inner layers of neurolemma. 
    • -a myelin sheath formed in the PNS 
  19. which is inbound which is outbound? 

    axon 
    dendrite
    • axon-outbound (motor)
    • dendrite-inbound (sensory)
  20. which contains dendrites and unmyelinated axons? which contains myelinated axons? 

    white/grey
    grey matter- dendrites and unmyelinated axons (cell body)

    white matter- myelinated axons
  21. Key for knowing whether structures are motor or sensory: 
    Lateral and Anterior=
    Posterior=
    spinal nerve/ramus/column=
    Whats the exception? (think about its placement)
    • LA=motor
    • P=sensory
    • spinal nerve/ramus/column= both 
    • posterior white column= is a column but is very posterior, sensory only
  22. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles. Where on spine?

    Ansa cervicalis
    • Cervical plexus
    • strap muscles of the neck (sternohyoid)
    • Turns neck from side to side unilaterally, or down bilaterally
    • C1-C3
  23. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles. Where on spine? 

    Phrenic nerve
    • cervical plexus 
    • C3-C5
    • innervates the diaphragm "C3,4,5 keep the diaphragm alive"
    • breathing
  24. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles. 

    Musculocutaneous nerve
    • Brachial plexus 
    • motor innervates the anterior arm-flexing humerus and forearm 
    • sensory innervates the lateral forearm
  25. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles. 

    median nerve
    • Brachial plexus 
    • motor innervates anterior forearm and thumb muscles- pronation, flexion of wrist and fingers, moves thumb
    • sensory innervates anterior forearm and most of hand
  26. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles. 

    ulnar nerve
    • brachial plexus
    • motor innervates muscles of the hand-adduction and abduction, flexes hand
    • sensory innervates the medial forearm
  27. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    axillary nerve
    • brachial plexus 
    • motor innervates the deltoid-abducts arm 
    • sensory innervates the shoulder area
  28. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    radial nerve
    • brachial plexus 
    • motor innervates the posterior arm and forearm- extends forearm, extends wrists, fingers, supinates forearm 
    • sensory innervation from posterior arm, forearm, hand
  29. Why are there no nerve plexuses formed between T2 and T11?
    they are intercostal nerves that innervate the chest and abdomen area
  30. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    Iliohypogastric/Ilioinguinal nerve
    lumbar plexus 

    • motor innervation to abdominal muscles- flexes vertebral column 
    • sensory innervates the skin over the abdomen and external genitalia
  31. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    femoral nerve
    lumbar plexus 

    • motor innervates the anterior thigh- extension of knee, hip flexor
    • sensory innervates the lateral and anterior thigh
  32. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    obturator nerve
    lumbar plexus 

    • motor innervates the medial thigh-adductor muscles 
    • sensory innervates the superomedial thigh
  33. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    saphenous nerve
    • lumbar plexus 
    • continuous of femoral nerve
    • sensory innervation of medial leg
  34. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    Pudendal nerve
    • sacral plexus 
    • motor innervates and tightens muscles of perineum, external anal sphincter, external urethral sphincter
    • sensory innervates skin on external genitalia
  35. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    tibial nerve
    sacral plexus 

    • motor innervates the posterior thigh, leg, and plantar foot- extends thigh, flexes leg, flexes foot 
    • sensory of these same areas
  36. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    common fibular nerve
    • sacral plexus 
    • motor innervates the anterior leg and dorsal foot- dorsiflex foot, extend toes, inverts foot 
    • sensory innervates space between 1 and 2 digits
  37. Identify Nerve plexus, muscle compartment innervated, and major functions of those muscles.

    common fibular nerve
    sacral plexus

    motor innervates lateral leg
  38. which ventricle is the structure associated with? 
    what is their function? 

    thalamus/hypothalamus
    third ventricle

    • thalamus-sensory switching station 
    • hypothalamus-controls endocrine station
  39. which ventricle is the structure associated with? 

    head and tail of caudate nucleus
    lateral ventricles
  40. which ventricle is the structure associated with? 

    medulla oblongata
    fourth ventricle
  41. which ventricle is the structure associated with? 

    midbrain
    contains the cerebral aqueduct with connects the third and fourth ventricle
  42. which ventricle is the structure associated with? 

    temporal lobe
    lateral ventricle
  43. which ventricle is the structure associated with? 

    pons
    fourth ventricle
  44. which ventricle is the structure associated with? 

    cerebellum
    fourth ventricle
  45. what are the tissues that form the choroid plexus? 

    what does it produce?
    ependymal cells and capillaries 

    • CSF
    • cerebrospinal fluid
  46. what is the pathway of CSF flow through the brain into the sinuses of the dura mater 
    5 steps
    • 1. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus in the ventricles 
    • 2. CSF flows from the 3rd ventricle though the cerebral aqueduct into the 4th ventricle 
    • 3. CSF in the 4th ventricle flows through the subarachnoid space and into the central canal of the spinal chord 
    • 4. as it flows through subarachnoid space it drops off waste products and provides buoyancy to support the brain 
    • 5. excess CSF flows through arachnoid villi and into dural sinuses.
  47. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    central sulcus
    it marks the boundary of the posterior frontal lobe and the anterior parietal lobe
  48. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    lateral sulcus
    separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe
  49. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    precentral gyrus 

    what kind of function? (motor or sensory)
    the frontal lobe, immediately anterior to the central sulcus

    voluntary motor function
  50. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    parietal-occipital sulcus
    it is the posterior boundary of the parietal lobe and the anterior boundary of the occipital lobe
  51. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    postcentral gyrus 

    sensory or motor function?
    the parietal lobe, it is immediately posterior to the central sulcus 

    sensory function
  52. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    hippocampus 
    motor or sensory function?
    • temporal lobe 
    • sensory
  53. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    longitudinal fissure
    • frontal
    • parietal 
    • and occipital lobes
  54. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    prefrontal cortex
    frontal lobe
  55. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    Borca's area 
    motor or sensory?
    • frontal lobe 
    • motor
  56. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    Wernicke's area 
    motor or sensory function?
    • temporal and parietal lobe 
    • sensory
  57. what lobe(s) is the mentioned structure associated with on the telencephalon? 

    gustatory area
    sensory or motor?
    • insula 
    • sensory
  58. provide examples and function for the type of fiber

    association fibers (2 types)
    • short association fibers- connect gyrus to gyrus within a hemisphere or lobe.
    • ex. arcuate fibers, tracts connecting the primary motor cortex to the motor association area 

    • long association fibers-connect gyrus to gyrus from different lobes.
    • ex longitudinal fasciculi, tracts connecting wernicke area to motor speech area
  59. provide examples and function for the type of fiber

    commissural fibers
    • connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain 
    • ex corpus callosum, anterior and posterior commissures
  60. provide examples and function for the type of fiber

    projection fibers
    connect spinal cord and inferior brain to the outside of the brain (cerebral cortex) 

    ex. motor axons from cerebral cortex to spinal cord, sensory axons from spinal cord to cerebrum
  61. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    cerebral peduncles 
    motor/sensory function?
    • midbrain 
    • motor
  62. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    inferior/superior colliculi 
    sensory or motor? 
    what is their combined name?
    • midbrain 
    • sensory 
    • corpora quadrigemina
  63. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    middle cerebral peduncles 
    sensory/motor?
    • connects the pons to the cerebellum 
    • sensory and motor
  64. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    pyramids
    sensory/motor
    • medulla oblongata
    • motor
  65. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    olives 
    sensory/motor
    • medulla oblongata 
    • sensory
  66. what do the peduncles connect? 

    superior 
    middle
    inferior
    • s-cerebrum to midbrain 
    • m-pons to the cerebellum 
    • i-cerebellum to medulla oblongata
  67. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    hippocampus
    associated with thalamus and hypothalamus via the limbic system
  68. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    respiratory center and pneumotaxic center
    the medulla oblongata and the pons
  69. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    lateral/median apertures
    pons, medulla oblongata and the cerebellum
  70. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    optic nerve
    hypothalamus and thalamus (part of limbic system)
  71. What region(s) on the brain is the structure associated with?

    substanita nigra
    midbrain
  72. whats the difference between flaccid and spastic paralysis
    flaccid paralysis comes from disruption or damage to the nerves 

    spastic paralysis comes from unusual tightness or damage to the muscle
  73. function of cerebellum
    smooth, coordinated body movements
  74. function? type? location?

    Olfactory 1
    • smell 
    • sensory
    • olfactory mulcosa
  75. function? type? location?

    Optic 2
    • vision 
    • sensory
    • retina
  76. function? type? location?

    oculomotor 3
    eye movement- lens accomodation, pupil constriction, eyeball muscles

    • midbrain 
    • motor
  77. function? type? location?

    trochlear 4
    • eye ball movement control 
    • motor 
    • midbrain
  78. function? type? location?

    trigeminal 5
    • general sensation for touch, pain, temp of face and chewing 
    • both sensory and motor 
    • pons
  79. function? type? location?

    abducens 6
    • lateral rectus muscle- turns eyeballs outward
    • motor 
    • pons
  80. function? type? location?

    facial nerve 7
    • facial expression, taste and tears 
    • both motor and sensory 
    • pons
  81. function? type? location?

    vestibulocochlear 8
    • hearing and balance 
    • sensory 
    • medulla
  82. function? type? location?

    glossopharyngeal 9
    • swallowing muscles 
    • taste 
    • both 
    • medulla
  83. function? type? location?

    vagus 10
    • pretty much everything 
    • heart, digestion, etc 
    • medulla

    both
  84. function? type? location?

    accessory nerve 11
    • trapezius 
    • sternocleidomastoid 

    • medulla
    • motor
  85. function? type? location?

    hypoglossal 12
    • movement of tongue 
    • motor 
    • medulla

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