Neoplastic disorders

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Author:
Prittyrick
ID:
310703
Filename:
Neoplastic disorders
Updated:
2015-10-31 20:58:53
Tags:
Cancersux
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Description:
Cancer Sucks!!
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  1. terminology
    • Cancer
    • Malignant neoplasm
    • Neoplasm
    • Tumor
    • Cancer disease of cell invasive, it spreads breast cancer and bowel cancer
  2. benign v malignant
    • benign
    • - usually harmiese growth
    • - well differentiated doses not spread (looks like the cell)

    • Malignant
    • - harmful mass
    • - change in differentiation may invade other tissue
    • - no useful purpose
    • (invade)
  3. Incidence, prevalence, mortality
    • Incidence
    • - breast CA- 232, 670 new cases 2014 (ACS)
    • - Colon CA- 136-830, new cases in 2014 (ACS)
    • Prevalence
    • - breast CA 2.9 million survivors
    • - colon CA 1 million survivors
    • Mortality
    • - breast CA 40,000 US deaths 2014
    • - Colon CA 50, 310 2014
  4. The Cell
    • cell proliferation= cell growth
    • cell differiation= maturation (mature)
  5. Cell Proliferation Normal
    • orignate as stem cells (orderly sequence)
    • predetermined, orderly sequence
    • enter cell cycle and grow into functioning cells generally of tissue surrounds them
    • start as undifferiated cell and transformed into cell with specific purpose. cell division (mitosis) and continues cycles
    • contact inhibition (normal cells do not grow on top of one another, bone cells surround other bone cells, cells stay in their place)
  6. Cell proliferation: Cancer
    • Divide indiscriminitly (no order)
    • no order, does not listen to intracellular signals
    • produce more than 2 cells
    • loss contact inhibition (no regard for boundaries, grow on top, btwn cells)
    • cause: mutations, changes in DNA
  7. Cellular Differentiation
    • Maturation and specialization
    • - orderly process
    • - not fully understood
    • Protooncogenes- "lock", promote growth (protects us from mutations from occuring)
    • - Oncogenes: unlocks and carcinogenics- alters and unlocks,
    • (mutation to occur, regulates cell growth- suppress tumor growth?)
    • Tumor Suppressor Genes
    • - suppress tumor growth, regulate cell growth (ex mutation BrCA1, BrCA2- if this is positive you will have increase risk for breast cancer)
  8. Cellular Differentiation Cancer
    • When altered
    • - changes in cell appearance
    • - appearance of tumor specific antigens (AFP, CEA cell membrane- if + in adults it shows immature¬†¬† in pathways reverted cells)
    • - loss of normal function- cell no longer function as to what it is suppose to
  9. Cancer cells
    Teen Bedroom
    • Disorganized components (poorly differentiated)- doesn't look like normal bone cell
    • variable shapes and sizes
    • large/mulitple nuclei (poorly differentiated)
    • tumor specific antigens
    • serve no useful purpose
    • - compress, steal nutrients
    • defective cell proliferation (growth)
    • - grows at own rate> daughter cells
  10. Pathophysiology
    • Not fully understood
    • theory: many factors and several stages that proceed in a very orderly fashion
    • Initiation
    • Progression
    • Promotion
  11. Initiation
    • Cell Mutation
    • - DNA flaw- error in replication
    • - Carcinogens- causes changes in the cell structure or function, cause cancer
    • ex of Carcinogen
    • - smoking
    • - toxins
    • - processed foods meats, hot dogs
  12. Carcinogens
    cancer causing agents produces cellular alterations
  13. Promotion
    • reversible proliferation of altered cells
    • cell continues to be assaulted
    • promoting agents- ie cigarettes, dietary fat, obesity, ETOH (nicotine, bronchigenic carry)
    • withdrawl may reverse progession
    • - example smoking cessation (stop, may reverse)
    • Latent period- from time the has been assaulted until you show symptoms
    • - clinically evident
  14. Clinically evident
    • Tumor
    • - to be detected by tests- 0.5 cm, will contain @ .5 billion cells
    • - to be palpated- 1 cm or larger (1 billion malignant cell)
    • this is why health promotion is so important
    • majority of carcinogenics are environmentally causing
  15. Progression
    • increased growth rate
    • cell are increasingly malignant
    • develop into an invasive cancer
    • potential for metastasis (spread to distant sites) moving form one area to another
  16. Metastasis
    • spread of malignant cells to a distant sites
    • helps distinguish malignant from benign growths
    • may explain failure of treatment
    • cells invade surrounding tissue and blood vessels or lymph channels to travel
    • cells: less adherent, more mobile, may produce enzyme (promote growth), angiogenesis (new blood vessels- so it could steal blood supply to feed tumor)
  17. Cancer Mets
  18. Classification of Cancer
    • Purpose:
    • - enhance communication
    • - assist in treatment planning and eval
    • -determine prognosis
    • - aid in research
    • Anatomic- where is it? tissue of orgin
    • Histologic Classification- degree of differention- cells should look like each other
    • Clinical staging (0-IV)
    • Extent of Disease (TNM)
  19. TNM Classification
    • T- tumor size
    • N- lymph node involvement
    • M- metastasis
  20. TNM
    Primary tumor (T)
    • T0- no evidence of primary tumor
    • Tis- carcinoma in situ (localized)
    • T1-4- ascending degrees of increase in tumor size and involvement
  21. TNM
    Regional lymph nodes (N)
    • N0- no evidence of disease in lymph nodes
    • N1-4- ascending degrees of nodule involvement
    • Nx- regional lymph nodes unstable to be assessed clinically
  22. TNM
    Distant metastasis (M)
    • M0- no evidence of distant metastatases
    • M1-4- ascending degrees of metastatic involvement (1-4 more distant in other areas)

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