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Normal cells are?
- Eupoid-23 pairs of chromosomes
- adhere close together
Cancer cells are?
- Aneupoid-as cancer cells become malignant they lose or gain chromosomes.
- adhere loosely together
- are not contact inhibited
bizarre cell growth causes different size, shape or arrangement.
- new cell growth not needed for normal body cell growth or replacement of dead or missing tissue.
- Neoplasm-synonymous with Tumor
without shape or differentiation. Cells loose the specific appearance of the parent cell and become “poorly differentiated”.
increase in tissue size by number of cells
- Slow rate of growth,
- normal mitosis
- Usually cohesive,
- well-defined borders
- No metastasis
- Erratic growth,
- numerous mitosis
- Locally invasive
- Frequently metastasis is present.
is a tumor of epithelial cells. Somatotroph adenoma
is a tumor composed of neuroglial cells in the brain.
tumor of dilated blood vessels.
30% - 35% of all lung cancer.
one of the most aggressive primary brain tumors.
malignant tumor derived from embryonal fat cells.
neoplasm of epithelial cells that line blood vessels.
- T = primary tumor
- N = regional lymph nodes
- M = distant metastasis
- Tx,T0-T4, Tis
- Nx, N0-N3
- Mx, M0-M1
lung cancer that spreads to the brain will continue to be treated with lung cancer chemo.
Debulks the gross tumor-doesn't result in cure, but will increase the chances of other therapies being effective.
Improve appearance or increase function
Common Symptoms of Radiation
taste changes, fatigue, tissue fibrosis & scarring
Cytotoxic agents-designed to interfere with cellular reproduction
Chemotherapy side effects
- Extravasation of IV medications
- Mucositis & diarrhea
- Nausea and vomiting
- Immunosuppression neutropenia
Cancer cells & apoptosis
They do not respond to programmed cell death
socioeconomic and cancer
- unable to afford sunscreen
- increase drug and alochol use
- financial stress
- Poor nutrition
- Poor education in prevention of cancer
Nutrition and cancer
- processed foods
- meats and perservatives
- food coloring
- sodium nitrates and nitrites
- sodium benzoate
- BHA also used in rocket fuel
- sun exposure
- second hand smoke
genetics and cancer
hereditary predisposition to cancer
viruses and cancer
- Herpes zosters
- epstein barr
radiation side effets
- systemic effects noted by receiving beam radiation=fatigue and altered taste.
- tissue fibrosis and scarring
- changes to organs underneath
- alopecia, nausea vomiting,fatigue, diarrhea, sexual and fetility changes, skin changes. Depending on location of radiation, organs will be affected example of prostate cancer leading to urinary or bladder changes. thyroid cancer- leads to throat changes/vocal changes.
brachytherapy-close therapy radiation
radionuclide iodine for thyroid cancer=pt. is radioactive
Diff. routes to target specific cancer
Typical side effects when chemo and radiation combined.
- week 1-taste changes-leads to nutrition issues.
- week 2-thicker secretions dependent on what type of cancer you're being treated for.
- week 3-more discomfort in throat
- week 4-pain when swallowing
- week 5-skin changes
- week 6-severe sunburn to skin
- week 7 thick secretions, more pain, dysphagia, breaks in skin like wet sunburn.
Epoietin affa (Epogen, procrit)
Colony Stimulating Factor, Erythrocytes affected.
Colony stimulating factors- Macrophages and monocytes affected-used on bone marrow transplant units
CSF-colony stimulating factor-Neutrophils affected
CSF-Colony stimulating factor for Platelets.
- C: hanges in bowel/bladder habits
- A: sore that doesn't heal
- U: nusual bleeding/discharge
- T: thickening/lump
- I: indigestion/ dysphagia
- O: Obvious change in wart/mole
- N: nagging cough