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  1. what is the biosynthesis of RNA viruses
    • Virus mulktiplies in the cytoplasm and use a RNA-dependent rna polymerase
    • ssRNA(+)  is the Viral RNA that serves as mRNA for viral protein synthesis
    • ssRNA(-) is the transcribed into strand(+) in order to be turned into viral protein 
    • ds RNA- double stranded RNA
  2. Lytic stage- Bacteriophage replication.
    • Phage lyses and cause cell death
    • Attachment, Penetration, Biosynthesis, Maturation, and Rupture.
    • Virus attaches to the cell wall of the bacteria and inject it Viral DNA into the cell by penetrating the pin portion of the tail into the cell wall and using viral lysozome to lyse the cell  .
    • The viral DNA undergoes biosynthesis and more viral components are made by direction from the viral DNA
    • The viral components mature and assemble
    • the virions.
    • cell uses lysosome to exit the cell.
  3. Viral replication in animals
    • Virus attaches to the cell membrane and they either use endocytosis or fusion to enter the cell.
    • The virus uncoats( happens because of viral of host enzymes)
    • when in the cell the Viral DNA is transrcibe into mRNA that is used to create more Viral nucleic acids and protein
    • maturation- viral DNA and capsid protein assemble 
    • Release- released by budding or the rupturing of the cell
  4. Lysogenic replication cycle
    • Lysogenic means that the phage remains latent but it can be reactivated in later times by environmental conditions
    • One of the two way that viruses multiply
    • the virus attaches to the host cell and injects it DNA into the cell. 
    • The viral DNA combines with the DNA of the host cell and then the host cell continues through regular division.
    • When it 's bacterial chromosomes are replicated so is the viral DNA. 
    • the integration of the viral DNA into the bacterial chromosome is called the prophage
  5. virion
    mature completely developed viral particles
  6. Viral components
    • virion is a complete fully developed viral compenents
    • capsid- set of proteins that make a coat around the virus.( capsid is made from subunits called capsomeres)
    • Nucleic acid- either RNA or DNA : ds or single stranded 
    • some phages have spikes which are outer projection or enveloped which are lipid protein, and carbohydrate coatings.
  7. Prophage
    Viral DNA integrated into bacterial chromosome
  8. Viral Species
    A set of viruses that have the same genetic information and the same ecological niche
  9. MHC molecules
    • major histocampatibilty complex molecules 
    • Cell that take phagocytosed antigen and bring them to the cell surface so that the T-cell can analyze them.
    • Two major categories MHC1 and MHC2
    • MHC1 interacts with cytoxic T-cells and the curface T-cells are CD8( killer T-cells). The antigens that it presents are intracellular fragments 
    • MHC1 interacted with CD4 T helper cells. They present antigens from the extracellular fragments of proteins. Their presenting cell type are macrophages and B-cells
  10. Thymic Selection
    When Immature T-cells are destroyed.
  11. APC's antigen presenting cells
    • Molecules that present antigen particles to the immune system cells.
    • Dendritic Cells 
    • engulf and display microbes to the Tcells. Found in skin, blood, genital lymph nodes and spleen
    • Macrophages
    • activated by cytokines or the ingestion of antigenic material
    • migrate to the lymph tissues and present antigens to the T-cellls
  12. Neutralization
    Block adhesion of virus and bacteria and toxins to the mucosa
  13. Antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity  ( HINT: osmosis jones)
    • Antibodies attach to LARGE target cells ( protoza & hemlithnand) cause destruction using 
    • Natural (NK ) cells
    • macrophages 
    • eosinpphils
  14. Opiosonization
    Surround antigen with antibodies and promote phagocyctoisis
  15. Activation of compenent
    Causes inflammatory and lysis
  16. Agglutination
    • Antibodies reduce the area of infection by pulls the bacteria together 
    • Reduce # of infectious units to be dealt with.
  17. Antigen-Antibody Binding
    • Strengthof the bond between the two is called affinity
    • Antibody bind to antigen to target foreign cells for destruction
  18. Clonal deletion
    Eliminating harmful B-cells
  19. Clonal Selection
    • differentiate activated B-cells into 2 categories 
    • memory cells 
    • antigen producing plasma cells
  20. Antibodies
    • made from a heavy chain and a light chain. this chains are connected by dissulfide bonds
    • They have constant and variable regions. The variable region is dependent on the antigen that it is binding.
    • Bind to antigen to mark them to be killed
    • Light and heavy chains are identical, separately
    • Constant region is called the stem and it is identical to the immunoglobin class
    • made from 4 proteins
  21. epitope
    antigen determinants;part of the antigen recognized by the antibodies of the immune system.
  22. Antigen
    • foreign substance(microbes) that enter the body
    • Causes the generation of anitbodies
    • possess epitopes
  23. IFN
    • Type of cystokine;
    • It interferes with viral infection of host cells
  24. Chemokines
    Cytokines that move stimulate migration of leukocytes
  25. leukocytes
    white blood cell : many types; counteracts harmful foreign substances.
  26. Humoral Immunity
    • Attacked pathogen that are extracellular
    • B-cells- lymphocyte that are created in the red bone marrow
    • Regconizes antigens then makes antibodies
  27. cellular immunity
    • T-cells- lymphocytes made by the thymus 
    • Combats pathogens that are intracellular
    • When pathogen/ antigen  is detected it produces cystokines
    • Recognizes antigenic peptides produced by phagocytiosis 
    • TCR- T-cel receptor contact antigens the
  28. Interleukins
    Cystokines that are between leukocytes
  29. Cyotkines(5)
    • five types of cytokines
    • Interleukins
    • chemoleukins
    • interferons
    • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
    • Hematopoietic cyotkines
  30. tumor necrosis factor
    involved in the Inflammation response in autoimmune diseases
  31. Hematopoietic cytokines
    Controls the stem cells that produce RBC and WBC
  32. Cytokine storm
    Overproduction of cytokines
  33. Cytotoxic T-cell 
    • Killer T-cells that destroy pathogenic cells
    • CD8+ cells
    • attach to MH1 molecules
  34. T-helper cells 
    • Activated B cells to and creates cytokines
    • Binds to MHC2 molecules on Atigen presenting cells 
    • CD4+
  35. Antibody titer
    • the amount of antibody in serum 
    • reflects the intensity of the humoral reponees 
    • igM activated first then igG
  36. Immunological memory
    • immune memory of antigen 
    • Memory b-cells that recognize pathogen/antigen after second exposure to it 
    • Rapid and more effective response
  37. Nk cells
    • Natural killer cells 
    • Grnaular leukocytes that kills cells that do not have MHC 1 self antigens 
    • killer viruses infected by tumors and attack parasites
  38. T regulator cell (T reg)
    • type of CD4+ cells have CD25 molecule 
    • Suppresses the immune system
    • Protect intestinal bacteria and fetus 
    • helps to identify self and suppress responses against self 
    • Turns of immune system to help you yo feel better after infection
  39. Adaptive immunity
    • Very effective when there is a secondary response
    • developed by exposure to antigens or pathogens
    • Defense target a specific antigen 
    • Acquired through vaccination or infection
  40. 3 types of Thelper -cells
    • TH1-promotes Interferon- γ that  enchances complement, activates macrophages, and antibody production that leads to promote phagocytosis
    • TH2- present in allergic reaction activate B cells thatcreate igE that  inturn activate eosinphilos
    • TH17- activate Interlueuklin 17 that contributes to inflammation
  41. Immunity
    Ability to ward off diseases
  42. Susceptibility
    Lacking resistance to a disease
  43. Innate immunity
    • Born with it
    • fights against any pathogen
    • Fast
    • works exactly the same every time
    • very important
  44. Adaptive immunity
    • developed through exposure to vaccination or infection
    • is pathogen specific
    • developed over a period of time
    • use lymphocytes
    • have secondary response that is more effective that primary response
    •  has immune memory for second exposure to antigen 
    • slower to respond
  45. Granualocytes
    (HINT B.E.N.)
    • Basophils- histamine
    • eosinophils- kills parasite
    • neutrophils- phagocyte bacteria and viruses
  46. Agranulocytes
    • Lymphocytes-( 3 types)
    • T helper cells (Th)S+CD4+ activates B cells and produces cytokins
    • Cytotoxic T-cells- (Tc)  (CD8+)- 
    • kills infected infected cells 
    • Treg that destroy cell that do not have self antigens as well as protect immune system
    • natural killer cells- kills CANCER and virus infected cells 
    • Plasma b cells 
    • produce antibodies that recognize antigens
    • Mast cells- kills infected cell
  47. Skin
    • Composed of the dermis ( inner; connective tissue;stroma) and Epiderms( outer; tightly packed; keratin;parenchyma)
    • shedding and drying inhibit bacterial growth
  48. Mucous membrane
    • Composed of (mucus) viscour glycoproteins that trap bacteris and keep tract from drying out
    • lines gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and genitourinary tract
  49. ciliary escalator
    moves microbes out of respiratory tract of lungs
  50. sebum
    Forms a protective layer on skin and lowers the Ph
  51. lysosyme
    • lyses bacterial cell wall
    • found in tears, saliva, and urine
  52. lymphoid stem cell
    produces lymphocyte that are all a granular
  53. Myeloid stem cell
    Creates granular cell ( B.E.N), RBC, platelets, dendritic cell, and monocytes, and mast cells
  54. Granulocytes
    • Granules visible in cytoplasam with visible light
    • (BEN)
    • Basophils- produces histamine
    • Eosinophils- kill parasites phagocytic 
    • Neutropils- phagopcytoic; early stage of infection
  55. Most abundant lycocyte
    Neutrophils make up to 70% of the wBC
  56. agranulocytes
    • granules are not visble in cytoplasm w/ visible light microscope
    • Lymphocytes-
    • Tcells; cell mediated immunity 
    • B-Cells, produces antibodies 
    • Nk cells; apoptosis and cytosis( cancer cells and virus infected cells)
    • Mast cells- kills infected cells
    • RBC
    • dendrictic cells - activated adaptive immunity; Antigen presenting cell; phagocytoic 
    • monocytes - matures iunto macrophages that phagocytose
  57. phagocytes
    • fixed macrophages live in tissues and organs
    • free living roam around tissue and collect at site of infection
  58. mechanism of phagpocytes
    • Adhesion - Phagocyte attaches to the microbe 
    • digestioni digest micrboe using phagolysosome
    • ingestion-oposinzation- covering with antibodies to make it easier to digest 
    • chemotaxis- chemicals that calls pahgocytes to microbes
  59. Results of Antigen binding
    • Part of B-cell immunity opsonozation
    • aggulation
    • antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity 
    • neutralization
    • activation of the complement
  60. Inflamation
    • Margination: Phagocyte stick to endothelium 
    • Diapedesis- phagocute squeses through endothelieum cells
    • activates acute phase proteins
  61. acute phase protein
    • prostaglandins 
    • hitamines
    • leukotrienes
    • kinins
    • cytokines
  62. fever
    • abnormally high temperature
    • blood vessel shrinking causes shivering occurs and raises temperature 
    • hypothalamus releases protoglandins
    • reset hypothalamus from a higher temperature than its normal 37 degrees
    • vasodilation, body temperature falls and sweating occurs( crisis)
  63. complement system
    • serum protein produce by liver assist killing of microbes 
    • acts in cascade process called complement activation ( represented by a and b)
    • part of innate immunity 
    • 3 results 
    • 1)opsonosation
    • 2)cytolysis 
    • 3)inflammation
  64. INterferons
    • INF-α and INF-β:produced in response to viral replication
    • INF-γ- cause macrophages and neutrophils to kill bacteria
  65. Antiviral protein
    • produced by iFN α and INFβ
    • prevents/block viral replication
    • degrade viral mRNA
  66. Antimicrobial peptide
    short peptide produced in response to the peptide on microbes ( their cell wall )

    • inhibits formation of cell wall
    • create spore in the plasma membrane
  67. Toll-like receptor (TLR's)
    • Attach to pathoghen associated maolecule patterns (PAMPs)
    • TLR attaching to PAMP causes the host cell to release cytokines and regulate immune response.
  68. Hybridoma
    • immortal cancerous B cells 
    • produces monoclonal antibodies 
    • combined with antibodies of normal b cells
  69. Types of monoclonal Antibodies (Mabs)
    • Chimeric
    • Humanized
    •  Fully Human
  70. Chimeric
    mabs with mouse variable region and human constant region
  71. humanized
    Mabs mostly human but has mouse antigen binding site
  72. fully human
    Mabs produced form human gene on mouse
  73. Production of monoclonal antibodies
    • 1)Inject mouse with antigen 
    • 2)extract spleen 
    • 3) make a homogenized culture of spleen cells(in cell suspension of B cells that have normal antibody production)
    • 4)add to myeloma cells and hybrids(hybridomas) form 
    • 5) isolate hybridoma that are creating specifically antibodies for the antiget
    • 60 culture hybridomas to produce Mabs
  74. How to measure the amount of antibody titer
    Agglutination shows that sufficient antibodies are present to link antigens together
  75. viral hemaglutination
    viruses cause RBC to coagulate- come together
  76. Indirect agglutination test
    • Test for antibodies by using latex beads covered in antigen
    • Latex beads covered in antibody to detect antigen
  77. viral hemagglutination inhibition test
    • type of neutralization test
    • used for sub-typing viruses 
    • procedure:
    • virus and RBC are mixed with the serum of individual. If they have the antibody the virus is neutralized and hemagglutination is inhibited.
    • positive test (virus present) for viral hemagglutination test is if the hemagglutination is inhibited
  78. neutralization reaction
    antibody antigen reaction where the effects of exotoxins is blocked by the antibodies  of the toxin
  79. antitoxins
    antibodies for toxin
  80. florescent antibody techniques
    • combine flourescent dyes with antibodies
    • DFA- direct florescent antibody (used for rabies test ); identifies microorganism in clinical specimen 
    • IFA-indirect florescent antibody detects antibody in serum ( anti-HSIG)- will react w/ antibody of present.
  81. indirect assay
    needs a secondary antibody to detech if the antibody binded to the antigen
  82. Direct ELISA
    • detects antigens 
    • detected by adding a substrate for the linked enzyme and it produces a colored product of the antibody is present.
  83. Indirect ELISA
    detects antibodies
  84. Western blotting
    identifies protein via electrophoresis then blotting
  85. Pregnancy Test
    • free monoclonal antibodies specific for hcg a hormone produced during pregnancy 
    • use of an antibody already bound to the subtrate and it forms a sandwhich with the target antibody and a color change occurs
  86. FACS (HINT: DR.Evil)
    • florescent activated cell sorter 
    • cells that have certain antigens are labeled with fluorescent makers and they are mixed with other cells
    • to separate the cells go through a tube as droplet and a laser beam hit them. the flourecent detector recognized the flourescent labeled cell by size and color 
    • the electrode gives the cell a positive charge . 
    • Finally, electrically charged metal plates are at two ends they droplets go towards the negatively charge metal plate and the other cells that is not antigen specific and marked with the fluorescent marker is separated into another tubing
    • modification of flow cytometry
  87. herd immunity
    immunity for most of the population
  88. Purpose of vaccine
    • produce primary response so that antibodies and memory cells can be made to a specific antigen
    • secondary response is rapid and effective
  89. Types of vaccines
    • 7 types
    • Live attenuate: weakened vaccine. Create life long immunity ( both humoral and cellular); closely mimcs actual infection.
    • Inactived killed vaccine
    • requires booster
    • mostly induces humoral immune response And safer than live vaccines
    • subunit vaccines , which use antigen fragment to induce an immune response
    • recombinant vaccines- subunit vaccine made by genetic modification
    • Toxoids-inactivated toxins; serum containing antibodies against the toxins
    • VLP vaccines reassemble virus but do not include genetic informatioin
    • conjunction vaccines
    • nucleic acid vaccines- inject naked DNA to stimulate production of protein antigen and when the antigen react with redbone marrow it causes immunity
  90. possible way for making a live vaccine
    • isolate virus, then grown in human cell, after is injected into a monkey cell. 
    • allow it to undergo many replication in a monkey cell and it develops mutations that allow it to operate well in monkey cell
    • thus when it is reintroduced to humans it does not work as well
  91. adjuvants
    • added to vaccines to help it become more effective 
    • improve innate immune response
  92. Influenza(Flu)
    • Made from the influenzavirus and has a set of 8 RNA segment  in a lipid pilayer outer coat 
    • symptoms : headache, fever, and muscle aches.
  93. hemagglutinin spikes (HA)
    On the outer bilayer of the influenza virus and helps the virus to attach to and recognize the host cell
  94. Neuramindase spike
    helps the virus to detach from the host cell
  95. antigenic drift
    changes in the in the HA spike and the NA spike that helps the virus to elude some host  immune system
  96. antigenic shift
    This is what causes pandemics to happen. They are shift in the 8 RNA segments and the virus is able to completely evade the immune system
  97. Delta 32- CCR mutation
    prevents HIV cells from binding, fusing, or entering the cell.
  98. ways to prevent HIV
    protease inhibitor like : indinavir, Saqdinivir, Atanainivir
  99. Teterin
    • tetervirus to cells so that they cannot escape and and infect other
    • type of maturation inhibitor
  100. Integration inhibitors
    prevent viral cDna from integrating with the host chromosome
  101. HAART
    • Use combination of drugs to minimze survival of resistant strands 
    • highly activate antiretroviral theraphy
  102. HIV
    • of the genus lentivirus that is a retrovirus 
    • has gp120 gloprotein spike
    • made of two identical strands of RNA, reverse transcriptase enzynme, and phopholipid layer 
    • Three stages:
    • asymptomatic, decrease in CD4+ cell and AID where the cd4+ cell go below 200cells per microliter
  103. common cold
    • No fever
    • rhinovirus is the main cause and corona virus is the second most important
    • Rhinovirus is a liner single stranded RNA 
    • symptoms include; nasal congestion, sneezing, and coughing.
Card Set:
2015-11-02 13:49:42

Microbiology study cards for immunity, diseases, and viruses.
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