11 Pay 101

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11 Pay 101
2015-11-01 14:35:54

Notes from 395-421 and class
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  1. Intelligence
    The ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances and learn from one's experiences
  2. Why were intelligence tests originally developed?
    There was a lot of education reforms in 19th century France and the government hired a guy named Alfred Benet and a guy named Theodore Simon to make a test to help create and fill remedial classes
  3. Ratio IQ
    A statistic obtained by dividing a person's mental age by the person's physical age and then multiplying it by 100
  4. Deviation IQ
    A statistic obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying that by 100
  5. What important life outcomes do IQ test predict?
    Future earning potential, patience, risk calculation, predicting other's reactions, how to respond properly to situations
  6. Factor analysis
    A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors
  7. Two factor theory of intelligence
    Shearman's theory suggesting that every task requires a combination of a general ability (which he called g) and skills that are specific to the task (which he called s)
  8. How was the debate between Shearman and Thurston resolved?
    • The three level hierarchy was the boring answer
    • Peoplehave a general ability called intelligence, then they haves a small set of middle level abilities made up of a large set of specific ability unique to particular tasks
  9. Fluid intelligence
    The ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences
  10. Crystallized intelligence
    The ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience
  11. How do patterns of correlation reveal the middle level abilities?
    A pattern of someone being able to swat flies and balance things better but not be able to interpret Shakespeare well suggests that there are single middle level abilities like physical coordination, which is unrelated to other middle level abilities like academic skill.
  12. What are the advantages of a theory based approach to intelligence?
    Conclusions are based on hard evidence, but it's incapable of discovering any middle level abilities that aren't already measured.
  13. Emotional intelligence
    The ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning
  14. What skills are particularly strong in emotionally intelligent people?
    • Know what kinds of emotions a particular event will trigger
    • ID, manage and describe their emotions
    • Know how to use emotions to improve their decisions,
    • ID other people's emotions from face/tone of voice/body language
  15. How does the concept of intelligence differ across cultures?
    • Westerners: Speaking quickly and often is smart
    • Africans: Speaking slow and deliberately is smart
    • Confucian: Behaving properly is smart
    • Taoist: Humility and self knowledge is smart
    • Buddhist: Determination and mental effort is smart
    • Asian/African: Cooperation and social responsiblity
  16. People who score well on one test of mental ability
    Usually score well on others, suggesting a property called g (general intelligence)
  17. People who score well on one test of mental ability don't always score better on others
    Which suggests that there are properties called s (specific abilities)
  18. Between g and s
    Research has revealed that there are several middle level abilities
  19. The data based approach suggests
    That there are eight middle level abilities
  20. The theory based approach suggests
    That there may be middle level abilities that standard intelligence tests don't measure, such as practical, creative, and emotional intelligence.
  21. Non western cultures
    May include measure of social responsibility and cooperation in their definitions of intelligence
  22. Dizygotic Twins
    Twins from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm
  23. Monozygotic twins
    Twins who come from the splitting of a single egg fertilized by a single sperm
  24. Heritability coefficient
    A statistic (commonly dented as h^2) that describes the proportion of the difference between people's scores that can be explained by difference in their genes
  25. Why are the intelligence test scores of relative so similar?
    • Share genes, environments and/or both.
    • The more genes they share and the more they are raised in the same environment the closer their IQs are
  26. Why is h^2 Higher among wealthy people than among poor people?
    Because they have all have similarly nice environments with lots of resources.
  27. Shared environment
    Those environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a household
  28. Nonshared environment
    Those environmental factors that are not experienced by all repellant members of a household
  29. In what ways is intelligence like height?
    There is some genetic makeup the decides the range of heights a person can be, but their environment decides exactly what height that is
  30. Why are wealthier people more intelligent?
    Their SES (socioeconomic status) gives kids their level of nutrition, stress, and exposure level to environmental toxins
  31. How might genes exert their influence on intelligence?
    Genes that influence behavior such as liking reading can influence intelligence by coincidence.
  32. Intelligence is influenced by
    Both genes and environments
  33. The heritability coefficient h^2
    Tells us what potion of the difference between the intelligence scores of different people is attributable to differences in their genes
  34. Relative intelligence vs absolute intelligence
    • Relative: Generally stable over time
    • Absolute: Changes
  35. SES vs education
    • SES has a powerful influence on intelligence
    • Education has a moderate influence on intelligence
  36. What one thing most clearly distinguishes gifted children?
    Gifted children tend to be gifted in one thing and obsessed with that one thing. They display a "rage to master" a domain
  37. How can testing situation affect a person's performance on an IQ test?
    Asking a black person to put down their race on a test can make they fear supporting a negative stereotype and get nervous. Things like that
  38. How can environmental factors help explain between group difference in intelligence
    One group of people can be more or less likely to have a better SES than another group, making it seem like they are just inherently smarter when in reality they just have better resources
  39. How might your children enhance their intelligence?
    Exercise, nutrition, sleep, reading and instruction