The ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances and learn from one's experiences
Why were intelligence tests originally developed?
There was a lot of education reforms in 19th century France and the government hired a guy named Alfred Benet and a guy named Theodore Simon to make a test to help create and fill remedial classes
A statistic obtained by dividing a person's mental age by the person's physical age and then multiplying it by 100
A statistic obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying that by 100
What important life outcomes do IQ test predict?
Future earning potential, patience, risk calculation, predicting other's reactions, how to respond properly to situations
A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors
Two factor theory of intelligence
Shearman's theory suggesting that every task requires a combination of a general ability (which he called g) and skills that are specific to the task (which he called s)
How was the debate between Shearman and Thurston resolved?
The three level hierarchy was the boring answer
Peoplehave a general ability called intelligence, then they haves a small set of middle level abilities made up of a large set of specific ability unique to particular tasks
The ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences
The ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience
How do patterns of correlation reveal the middle level abilities?
A pattern of someone being able to swat flies and balance things better but not be able to interpret Shakespeare well suggests that there are single middle level abilities like physical coordination, which is unrelated to other middle level abilities like academic skill.
What are the advantages of a theory based approach to intelligence?
Conclusions are based on hard evidence, but it's incapable of discovering any middle level abilities that aren't already measured.
The ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning
What skills are particularly strong in emotionally intelligent people?
Know what kinds of emotions a particular event will trigger
ID, manage and describe their emotions
Know how to use emotions to improve their decisions,
ID other people's emotions from face/tone of voice/body language
How does the concept of intelligence differ across cultures?
Westerners: Speaking quickly and often is smart
Africans: Speaking slow and deliberately is smart
Confucian: Behaving properly is smart
Taoist: Humility and self knowledge is smart
Buddhist: Determination and mental effort is smart
Asian/African: Cooperation and social responsiblity
People who score well on one test of mental ability
Usually score well on others, suggesting a property called g (general intelligence)
People who score well on one test of mental ability don't always score better on others
Which suggests that there are properties called s (specific abilities)
Between g and s
Research has revealed that there are several middle level abilities
The data based approach suggests
That there are eight middle level abilities
The theory based approach suggests
That there may be middle level abilities that standard intelligence tests don't measure, such as practical, creative, and emotional intelligence.
Non western cultures
May include measure of social responsibility and cooperation in their definitions of intelligence
Twins from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm
Twins who come from the splitting of a single egg fertilized by a single sperm
A statistic (commonly dented as h^2) that describes the proportion of the difference between people's scores that can be explained by difference in their genes
Why are the intelligence test scores of relative so similar?
Share genes, environments and/or both.
The more genes they share and the more they are raised in the same environment the closer their IQs are
Why is h^2 Higher among wealthy people than among poor people?
Because they have all have similarly nice environments with lots of resources.
Those environmental factors that are experienced by all relevant members of a household
Those environmental factors that are not experienced by all repellant members of a household
In what ways is intelligence like height?
There is some genetic makeup the decides the range of heights a person can be, but their environment decides exactly what height that is
Why are wealthier people more intelligent?
Their SES (socioeconomic status) gives kids their level of nutrition, stress, and exposure level to environmental toxins
How might genes exert their influence on intelligence?
Genes that influence behavior such as liking reading can influence intelligence by coincidence.
Intelligence is influenced by
Both genes and environments
The heritability coefficient h^2
Tells us what potion of the difference between the intelligence scores of different people is attributable to differences in their genes
Relative intelligence vs absolute intelligence
Relative: Generally stable over time
SES vs education
SES has a powerful influence on intelligence
Education has a moderate influence on intelligence
What one thing most clearly distinguishes gifted children?
Gifted children tend to be gifted in one thing and obsessed with that one thing. They display a "rage to master" a domain
How can testing situation affect a person's performance on an IQ test?
Asking a black person to put down their race on a test can make they fear supporting a negative stereotype and get nervous. Things like that
How can environmental factors help explain between group difference in intelligence
One group of people can be more or less likely to have a better SES than another group, making it seem like they are just inherently smarter when in reality they just have better resources
How might your children enhance their intelligence?
Exercise, nutrition, sleep, reading and instruction