13 Psy 101

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13 Psy 101
2015-11-21 12:54:56

Notes from pages 537-546
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  1. How are stereotypes useful?
    They help us guess how to act around different types of people (children, cashiers, bankers, etch)
  2. Stereotyping
    The process where people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belond
  3. Why might we have inaccurate beliefs about groups even after directly observing them?
    We could learn an inaccurate stereotype and then refuse to believe that any evidence against it disproves it.
  4. Self fulfilling prophecy
    The tendency for people to behave as they are expected to behave
  5. Stereotype threat
    The fear of confirming the negative beliefs that others may hold
  6. Perceptual confirmation
    The tendency for people to see what they expect to see
  7. Subtyping
    The tendency for people who receive disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them
  8. How does categorization warp perception?
    It warps our perceptions of that category's variability.
  9. In what way is a stereotype like a virus?
    Once they take up residence inside us they resist even our most concerted effort to eradicate them.
  10. Can we decide not to stereotype?
    Nope. They are just like the smell of French fries or our second grade teacher, they have had an impact on us and our perception or reality.
  11. When does a person's behavior tells us something about them?
    When we know they did what and how it effects them/us/others.
  12. Attribution
    An inference about the cause of a person's behavior
  13. Dispositional attributions
    When we decide that a person's behavior was caused by a relatively enduring tendency to think, feel or act in a particular way
  14. Situational attributions
    WHen we decide that a person's behavior was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation it happened in
  15. Correspondence bias
    The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when we should instead make a situational attribution
  16. Actor-observer effect
    The tendency to make situational attribution for ourselves and dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others
  17. Stereotyping can lead to misjudgment because
    Of inaccuracy, overuse, self-perpetuating, unconscious and auotmatic
  18. People make inferences about others based on their
    Behaviors and themselves on their intentions
  19. Cooperation involves activation of different brain regions, including the insular and the mirror neuron systems
  20. Competition and aggressive behavior is regulated by the frontal lobes; people who are overly aggressive have decreased frontal lobe function
  21. Milgram Experiment
  22. Even though Wundt emphasized it in his later years
    Darwin and survival of the fittest was forgotten about in social psychology until the 1980s when Buss reintroduced it.
  23. Sometimes behaviors we don't like
    Are hardwired into us, and require more discipline to ignore or change
  24. Saying "aggression" is like
    Say car, it doesn't cover every specific kind of aggression when you use the vague term.
  25. Aggression is used in order to
    Protect yourself and your genes, people are very often defending their genes when they act aggressively
  26. Defensive aggressoin
    Seems like a counterintuitive term, but it isn't. It is a response to a real or perceived threat.
  27. Impulsive aggression
    Is seen often when a person is frustrated and often has nothing to do with whatever is being attacked/aggression is being let out on
  28. How does testosterone make you feel and what role does it play?
    It makes you feel empowered and it plays a role in feeling a need to maintain a social status even when logically nothing good will come out of it
  29. Can women be as aggressive as men?
    Yes. People have only realized it in the last 20 years. Impulsivity is less dependent on testosterone. Women are more premeditated, less often physical and more often psychological (but not always).
  30. What types of aggression do women usually show?
    Premeditated, psychological, prolonged aggression with a clear goal. It includes lots of group think and is highly influenced by culture
  31. What was Wendt interested in, in regards to social psychology?
    Brain behavior relationships.
  32. The frontal lobe serves as a
    • Center for empathy, a regulator for moral/legal reasons not to do something
    • Damage here means that you could do aggressive things much more often than you should or would if you didn't have that damage.
  33. Insula is
    Partly in charge of fight or flight
  34. What is the top quality people want in their peers?
  35. What is the opposite of aggression?
    Trust and cooperation
  36. Even people who would have benefitted from cooperation
    Can backstab because it is a more reliable thing to do than blind trust
  37. People with autism or Williams syndrome
    Are not born with an ability to identify trustworthy people. They have an inability to accurately infer trustworthiness, emotions and for some autistics there seems to be a deficit in the mirror neurons.
  38. Williams syndrome
    • Genetic alterations that are similar to autism but in the other direction.
    • Small, attractive, happy and musically inclined.
    • Usually think everyone is as happy as they are
  39. Paul Eckman
    Mastered every muscle in his face and isn't allowed to gamble in Vegas anymore because he could bullshit too well.
  40. Reciprocal altruism
    Altruism that occurs for later favor
  41. Group behavior is often
    Very different than indivudal behavior.
  42. Discrimination and prejudice
    May or may not be inherently bad, but it definitely can be.
  43. In-group
    People who act like you, are related in some way that makes you consider each other a group
  44. Out-group
    People outside of your in-group
  45. People tend to come up with reason why
    Some kind of prejudice or discrimination is okay
  46. Evolutionary hard wiring sets us up to
    Affiliate and almost irrationally support members of in group so they support us as well. There was a time when this may have been necessary to survive, but we have gotten to a point where it has a negative impact on people. We are more than our genome.
  47. We may have a predisposition
    But behavior is malleable
  48. Sternberg's triad of love
  49. Where is the ventral tegmental area?
  50. Where are the basic brain structures?
  51. Regions of the brain
  52. Cognitive dissonance rationalization
  53. Cognitive dissonance occurs when
    • Your explicit and implicit attitudes don't match.
    • You can deal with this by trying to rationalize it or by trying to change attitudes or behaviors to get them matched up
  54. What are the two basic forms of persuasion?
    • Systematic: Used if the person is paying attention; involves presentation of facts
    • Heuristic: More common; facts are less important than exploiting emotions or habits, often involves presenting opinions by "experts" or "attractive people" or "celebrities". Best achieved by fast talkers who can elicit strong emotions or by no words at all
  55. Who was the first person to apply psychology to advertising?
    JB Watson did, after he was kicked out of academia and didn't have any other opportunity for a job