They help us guess how to act around different types of people (children, cashiers, bankers, etch)
The process where people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belond
Why might we have inaccurate beliefs about groups even after directly observing them?
We could learn an inaccurate stereotype and then refuse to believe that any evidence against it disproves it.
Self fulfilling prophecy
The tendency for people to behave as they are expected to behave
The fear of confirming the negative beliefs that others may hold
The tendency for people to see what they expect to see
The tendency for people who receive disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them
How does categorization warp perception?
It warps our perceptions of that category's variability.
In what way is a stereotype like a virus?
Once they take up residence inside us they resist even our most concerted effort to eradicate them.
Can we decide not to stereotype?
Nope. They are just like the smell of French fries or our second grade teacher, they have had an impact on us and our perception or reality.
When does a person's behavior tells us something about them?
When we know they did what and how it effects them/us/others.
An inference about the cause of a person's behavior
When we decide that a person's behavior was caused by a relatively enduring tendency to think, feel or act in a particular way
WHen we decide that a person's behavior was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation it happened in
The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when we should instead make a situational attribution
The tendency to make situational attribution for ourselves and dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others
Stereotyping can lead to misjudgment because
Of inaccuracy, overuse, self-perpetuating, unconscious and auotmatic
People make inferences about others based on their
Behaviors and themselves on their intentions
Cooperation involves activation of different brain regions, including the insular and the mirror neuron systems
Competition and aggressive behavior is regulated by the frontal lobes; people who are overly aggressive have decreased frontal lobe function
Even though Wundt emphasized it in his later years
Darwin and survival of the fittest was forgotten about in social psychology until the 1980s when Buss reintroduced it.
Sometimes behaviors we don't like
Are hardwired into us, and require more discipline to ignore or change
Saying "aggression" is like
Say car, it doesn't cover every specific kind of aggression when you use the vague term.
Aggression is used in order to
Protect yourself and your genes, people are very often defending their genes when they act aggressively
Seems like a counterintuitive term, but it isn't. It is a response to a real or perceived threat.
Is seen often when a person is frustrated and often has nothing to do with whatever is being attacked/aggression is being let out on
How does testosterone make you feel and what role does it play?
It makes you feel empowered and it plays a role in feeling a need to maintain a social status even when logically nothing good will come out of it
Can women be as aggressive as men?
Yes. People have only realized it in the last 20 years. Impulsivity is less dependent on testosterone. Women are more premeditated, less often physical and more often psychological (but not always).
What types of aggression do women usually show?
Premeditated, psychological, prolonged aggression with a clear goal. It includes lots of group think and is highly influenced by culture
What was Wendt interested in, in regards to social psychology?
Brain behavior relationships.
The frontal lobe serves as a
Center for empathy, a regulator for moral/legal reasons not to do something
Damage here means that you could do aggressive things much more often than you should or would if you didn't have that damage.
Partly in charge of fight or flight
What is the top quality people want in their peers?
What is the opposite of aggression?
Trust and cooperation
Even people who would have benefitted from cooperation
Can backstab because it is a more reliable thing to do than blind trust
People with autism or Williams syndrome
Are not born with an ability to identify trustworthy people. They have an inability to accurately infer trustworthiness, emotions and for some autistics there seems to be a deficit in the mirror neurons.
Genetic alterations that are similar to autism but in the other direction.
Small, attractive, happy and musically inclined.
Usually think everyone is as happy as they are
Mastered every muscle in his face and isn't allowed to gamble in Vegas anymore because he could bullshit too well.
Altruism that occurs for later favor
Group behavior is often
Very different than indivudal behavior.
Discrimination and prejudice
May or may not be inherently bad, but it definitely can be.
People who act like you, are related in some way that makes you consider each other a group
People outside of your in-group
People tend to come up with reason why
Some kind of prejudice or discrimination is okay
Evolutionary hard wiring sets us up to
Affiliate and almost irrationally support members of in group so they support us as well. There was a time when this may have been necessary to survive, but we have gotten to a point where it has a negative impact on people. We are more than our genome.
We may have a predisposition
But behavior is malleable
Sternberg's triad of love
Where is the ventral tegmental area?
Where are the basic brain structures?
Regions of the brain
Cognitive dissonance rationalization
Cognitive dissonance occurs when
Your explicit and implicit attitudes don't match.
You can deal with this by trying to rationalize it or by trying to change attitudes or behaviors to get them matched up
What are the two basic forms of persuasion?
Systematic: Used if the person is paying attention; involves presentation of facts
Heuristic: More common; facts are less important than exploiting emotions or habits, often involves presenting opinions by "experts" or "attractive people" or "celebrities". Best achieved by fast talkers who can elicit strong emotions or by no words at all
Who was the first person to apply psychology to advertising?
JB Watson did, after he was kicked out of academia and didn't have any other opportunity for a job