Patho exam 3 part 4

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Patho exam 3 part 4
2015-11-01 19:24:15

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  1. What are alternative therapies? (4)
    • Maggots
    • Leeches
    • Predatory bacteria
    • Virus/Phage
  2. What organism makes up gangrene?
    Clostridium perfringens 

    Gas gangrene aka "Clostridial myonecrosis" is a bacterial infection that produces gas in tissues (it's medical emergency)
  3. In maggot therapy, what does maggots eat?
    ONLY dead tissues!
  4. What was replaced by antibiotics and surgical techniques?
    Maggot Debridement Therapy
  5. Leeches in medicine is also known as ... ?
  6. One of the biggest problems for Hirudotherapy was?
    venous congestion due to inefficient venous drainage.

    if congestion isn't cleared quickly, blood will clot and arteries that brings tissues their necessary nourishment becomes plugged and tissues die.
  7. What are the 2 reasons that leeches are used to help promote circulation after reconstructive microsurgery?
    • Leeches can decompress tissues engorged from bleeding or poor venous
    • circulation
    • They can remove hematomas (collections of blood)
    • Once detached, the bite sites continue to bleed, which can promote circulation of the affected tissue.

    • reducing the swelling in the tissues and promoting healing by allowing
    • fresh, oxygenated blood to reach the area until normal circulation can be
    • restored.
  8. What is the name for leech's saliva?
    Hirudin (contains chemical cmpds useful in medicine)

    -vasodilator and prostaglandin help reduce swelling and pain

    -now used as an anticoagulant to prevent blood clots
  9. What bacteria aids in digestion of ingested blood (leeches) and produces an antibiotic that kills other bacteria that may cause putrefaction?
    Aeromonas hydrophila
  10. What are predators of bacteria?
    Myxococcus and Bdellvibrio
  11. Bacteriophages and Viruses is used as an _________________ Therapy.
  12. Bacteriophages and Viruses targets
    individual bacterial species and not wide spectrum

    every bacteria known has a complementary phage
  13. Phage/ virus therapy not only kills bacteria but also
    acts as vehicles for drug delivery systems to euk. cells in place of chemotherapy.

    ex: John Hopkins and others - M. tuberculosis 

    ex: University of Florida - oysters, phage targeting Vibrio vulnificus (causes fatalities)
  14. What happens with the use of phage enzymes?
    Lysins - lyse Gram (+) cell walls, digest cell wall for bacteriophage progeny release.

    ex: S. pneumoniae - nasal spray, killed 15 strains w/in secs of contact
  15. What are the problems with phage therapy?
    -high specificity

    -phage cocktails

    -antibiotic resistance (gene transfer)
  16. What are Bacteriocins?
    Proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria
  17. Bacteriocins have a narrow killing spectrum and are only toxic to bacteria that are  _______ related to the producing strain.
  18. What was the 1st bacteriocin to be isolated and approved for use in foods, specifically to prevent growth of Clostridium botulinum in cheese?
  19. What are the purposes of usage? (4)
    • extend shelf life
    • cost saving for food processors 
    • ensure food safety
    • improve food quality
  20. What is a predatory bacteria?
    • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus
    • (Gram(-)) curved rod, obligate aerobe, distinct "attack" phase
    • present in all environments
  21. What does the Bdellovibrio do in Gram (-) bacteria?
    digest nutrients in periplasm prior to transport of nutrients into cytoplasm.
  22. Bdellovibrio is dependent on what to complete lifecycle?
  23. Lifecycle of Bdellovibrio
    • attack phase
    • attachment 
    • penetration
    • Bdelloplast formation
    • growth and development
    • maturation
    • lysiss