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What are the five requirements to being a mineral?
- Naturally occurring
- Have a definite chemical composition
- Have an ordered internal structure
What are properties of minerals that we test?
- Crystal form
- Specific gravity
Why is crystal form not a property usually used to identify a mineral?
Because the crystals are small due to the limited amount of space they grew in.
How do we describe a mineral with multiple planes of cleavage?
By stating the number of planes of cleavage and their angular relationship to each other.
What can we say about the bond strength in minerals that show fracture?
The bond strength is the same in all directions.
If a mineral has a hardness value of 9, would that mineral be soft or hard?
How useful is color when identifying minerals?
It is useful in limited situations. Most of the time it is not useful.
What minerals can you not determine their streak?
Minerals with a hardness > 6
What are three types of luster?
What is specific gravity?
The ratio of the weight of a mineral over the weight of water of the same volume.
What are the three subatomic particles found in an atom and where are they found?
- Protons which are found in the nucleus
- Neutrons which are found in the nucleus
- Electrons which are found in the electron cloud
What is the atomic number represent?
The number of protons which defines the element
What does the atomic mass number represent?
The number of protons and neutrons in that atom
What are the types of ions and what type of charge do they have?
What are some different types of bonding that occur?
- Intermolecular Force
What is the basic molecular building block for silicates?
The silica tetrahedron
Feldspars can be subcategorized into which two different types of minerals?
- Orthoclase which has potassium in it
- Plagioclase which has some mixture of sodium and/or calcium in it
What are the two classifications of igneous rock based on their formation?
- Intrusive (Plutonic)
- Extrusive (Volcanic)
Aphanitic texture is associated with which type of igneous rock?
How much cooling time did a rock with phaneritic texture have?
A long time to allow for the crystals to build up to a macroscopic scale
What are the four classifications of igneous rock based on their composition?
How do rocks visibly change when the go from a mafic composition to a felsic composition?
They go from being darker to being lighter
What is the sequence of minerals forming in the discontinuous side of the Bowen’s reaction series?
Olivine > Pyroxenes > Amphibole > Biotite
What type of mineral is involved in the continuous side of the Bowen’s reaction series?
What are the final minerals to form in the Bowen’s reaction series?
According to the Bowen’s reaction series, how much olivine do you expect to find in a felsic rock?
None. Olivine is found in ultramafic and mafic rocks.
What are the first minerals to melt during partial melting of a rock?
The minerals present that are lowest on the Bowen’s reaction series
What type of parent rock would you need to partially melt to get a mafic magma?
An ultramafic rock
What are three factors that could lead to melting of rock?
- Increase in temperature
- Decrease in pressure
- Increase in water content
Which of these factors is responsible for magma found at mid ocean ridges?
Decrease in pressure
Which of these factors is responsible for magma found at subduction zones?
Primarily increase in water content
What will happen to the country rock that is in contact with a magma body?
It will be metamorphosed
A collection of plutons is called what?
What is the name of the feature that intrudes across layering of country rock?
What are the two characteristics of the magma being erupted that determine the behavior of the eruption?
- Volatile Content
What factors affect the viscosity of a magma?
- Si and O content
- Crystal content
Which type of magma is more viscous, mafic or felsic?
Why is it not a problem when a basaltic magma has a higher volatile content?
Basaltic magma is less viscous and so the gases escape the lava more easily.
What is the name of the feature formed when a crust of solidified magma forms around the lava flow?
What is the name of the texture when basaltic lava appears ropy?
What features are formed when basaltic rock erupts underwater?
What are the two types of pyroclastic deposits?
- Air Falls
- Pyroclastic Flows
How steep are the slopes of a shield volcano?
2 ° -10°
How often are cinder cones active?
Cinder cones erupt only one time over a duration of hours to years
What type of rock makes up a composite volcano (mafic, intermediate, felsic)?
Intermediate and Felsic
What is the viscosity and volatile content of eruptions that make volcanic domes?
- High viscosity
- Low volatile content
What type of rock is erupted in hot spot volcanism?
- Basaltic rock when the hot spot is in oceanic crust
- Intermediate to felsic rock when the hot spot is in continental crust
Which type of eruption is safer to be around, basaltic or felsic?
What major city is next to Mt. Vesuvius today?
How much of the world will be affected when Yellowstone erupts next?
The entire world will be affected
What is the difference between weathering and erosion?
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks while erosion is the transportation of that broken down material away from it’s source.
What are the two types of weathering?
What are the three types of joints that form in rocks?
- Exfoliation Joints
- Columnar Joints
- Planar Joint Sets
What are two forms of wedging that can happen by mechanical weathering?
- Frost Wedging
- Root Wedging
What are the three main types of reactions in chemical weathering?
Will acid increase or decrease chemical weathering?
What does CO2 in the air combine with to form acid?
What is terrain the has lots of sinkholes and caves called?
Which mineral is more susceptible to weathering: olivine or quartz?
Which layers are more resistant to weathering and which layers are less resistant to weathering?
- More Resistant to Weathering (on top)
- Less Resistant to Weathering (on bottom)
What factors influence the rate of weathering?
- Time of Exposure
- Rock Type
What are the three types of mass wasting classified by their movement?
What is the slowest flow mass wasting called?
What factors of a slope determine it’s susceptibility to mass wasting?
- High Relief
- Thick layers of loose rock, debris and/or soil
- Presence of water
- Lack of vegetation
- Seismic Activity
What should you not do if you are modifying a slope and want to prevent slope failure?
- Over steepen the slope
- Remove vegetation
- Add water
- Add additional weight
What are three techniques used to prevent rockfalls and rockslides on highways?
- Remove all rocks that are prone to sliding
- Stitch together outcrops
- Construct concrete sheds with sloping roofs