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2015-11-02 00:12:03
JAVA midterm
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  1. defines the circumstances under which a class can be accessed and the other classes that have the right to use a class
    access specifier
  2. the indent style in which curly braces are aligned and each occupies its own line; it is named for Eric Allman, a programmer who popularized the style
    Allman style
  3. Java programs that are embedded in a Web page
  4. a computer program that performs tasks for users
    application software
  5. the feature of Java that allows you to write programs that run on any platform (operating system)
    architecturally neutral
  6. information passed to a method so it can perform its task
  7. a phrase that describes the period of time during which a program executes
    at run time
  8. the characteristics that define an object as part of a class
  9. comments that continue for as many lines as necessary; block comments start with / and end with /
    block comments
  10. programming statements that have been compiled into binary format
  11. to temporarily abandon the current logic so that the procedure’s commands can execute
    call a procedure
  12. a group or collection of objects with common properties
  13. the set of data items and methods between the curly braces that follow the class header
    class body
  14. describes what attributes its objects will have and what those objects will be able to do
    class definition
  15. a program that translates language statements into machine code; it translates an enture program at once before any part of the program can execute
  16. an error in which the compiler detects a violation of language syntax rules and is unable to translate the source code to machine code
    compile-time error
  17. applications that support character output to a computer screen in a DOS window
    console applications
  18. a GUI object resembling a window in which you can place messages you want to display
    dialog box
  19. the enclosure of data and methods within an object
  20. a graphical environment in which users interact with a program; pronounced "gooeys"
    graphical user interface (GUI)
  21. a language that allows you to use an English-like vocabulary to write programs
    high-level programming language
  22. a name of a program component such as a class, object, or variable
  23. a statement that accesses a built-in Java class that is contained in a package
    import statement
  24. the ability to create classes that share the attributes and methods of existing classes, but with more specific features
  25. a program that translates language statements into machine code; it translates one statement at a time, allowing a program to execute partially
  26. an object-oriented language developed by Sun Microsystems that is used for general-purpose business applications and for interactive Internet applications
  27. Use the ____ statement to indicate that a problem has occurred.
  28. Use class ____ to perform precise monetary calculations.
  29. String class static method ____ is similar to method System.out.printf, but returns a formatted String rather than displaying a String in a command window
  30. The ____ states that code should be granted only the amount of privilege and access that it needs to accomplish its designated task.
    principle of least privilege
  31. Set methods are commonly called ____ because they typically change a value.
    mutator methods
  32. The public methods of a class are also known as the class's ____ or ____.
    public services, public interface
  33. An object's ____ method is called implicitly when an object appears in code where a String is needed.
  34. ____ makes it explicit in the code, that you're constructing the base class using the no-arg constructor.
    Super constructor
  35. Keyword ____ specifies that a variable is not modifiable after initialization in a declaration or constructor.
  36. The ____ is the one Java provides by default.
    default constructor ex: public Dog() { }
  37. If a method contains a local variable with the same name as one of its class's fields, the local variable ____ the field in that method's scope.
  38. If a class declares constructors, the compiler will not create a(n) ____.
    default constructor
  39. Get methods are commonly called ____ or ____.
    accessor methods, query methods
  40. For every enum, the compiler generates a static method called ____ that returns an array of the enum's constants in the order in which they were declared.
  41. Every object can access a reference to itself with keyword ___.
    this (sometimes called the this reference)
  42. The constructor which takes no arguments is called the ____.
    no-argument constructor
  43. Composition is sometimes referred to as a(n) ____ relationship.
  44. Class ____ is used for formatting numeric values as locale-specific Strings.
  45. Any application that requires precise floating-point calculations should instead us class ____.
    BidDecimal (from pachage java.math)
  46. A(n) ____ variable represents classwide information that's shared by all the objects of the class.
  47. A(n) ____ method tests whether a condition is true or false.
  48. A(n) ___ imports all static members of a class
    static import on demand
  49. A(n) ____ declaration specifies on class to import.
  50. A(n) ____ declaration imports only the classes that the program uses from a particular package.
  51. A(n) ____ declaration imports one static member.
    single static import
  52. ______ allows to have more than one constructor inside one Class.
    Constructor overloading
  53. A(n) ____ declaration contains a comma-separated list of constants.
  54. Executes a body of statements continually as long as the Boolean expression that controls entry into the loop continues to be true.
    while loop
  55. The process of ensuring that a value falls within a specified range.
    Validating data
  56. Alters the value of the operand on the left by subtracting the operand on the right from it.
    subtract and assign operator ( -= )
  57. Alters the value of the operand on the left by assigning the remainder when the left operand is divided by the right operand.
    remainder and assign operator ( %= )
  58. The first input statement prior to a loop that will execute subsequent input statements for the same variable.
    Priming read or priming input
  59. One in which the loop control variable is tested before the loop body executes.
    pretest loop
  60. subtract 1 from a variable.
    prefix and postfix decrement operators
  61. Adds 1 to a variable, then evaluates it.
    prefix ++ (prefix increment operator)
  62. One in which the loop control variable is tested after the loop body executes.
    posttest loop
  63. Evaluates a variable, then adds 1 to it.
    postfix ++ (postfix increment operator)
  64. Contains another loop.
    outer loop
  65. Alters the value of the operand on the left by multiplying the operand on the right by it.
    multiply and assign operator ( *= )
  66. The technique of combining two loops into one.
    Loop fusion
  67. A variable whose value determines whether loop execution continues.
    Loop control variable
  68. The block of statements that executes when the Boolean expression that controls the loop is true.
    Loop body
  69. A structure that allows repeated execution of a block of statements.
  70. One loop execution.
  71. Contained entirely within another loop.
    inner loop
  72. A loop that never ends.
    infinite loop
  73. A loop in which the final number of loops is unknown.
    indefinite loop
  74. Incrementing a variable adds 1 to its value.
  75. A special loop that can be used when a definite number of loop iterations is required.
    for loop
  76. An indefinite loop is an event-controlled loop.
    Event-controlled loop
  77. A block with no statements in it.
    Empty body
  78. Executes a loop body at least one time; it checks the loop control variable at the bottom of the loop after one repetition has occurred.
    do..while loop
  79. One that performs no actions other than looping.
    do-nothing loop
  80. A definite loop.
    Counter-controlled loop
  81. One that needs three operands.
    ternary operator
  82. Uses up to four keywords to test a single variable against a series of exact integer or character values. The keywords are switch, case, break, and default.
    switch statement
  83. A decision structure that performs an action, or not, based on one alternative.
    Single-alternative if
  84. Describes the feature of the AND and OR operators in which evaluation is performed only as far as necessary to make a final decision.
    Short-circuit evaluation
  85. A logical structure in which one step follows another unconditionally.
    Sequence structure
  86. A series of statements that determine within which of a set of ranges a value falls.
    Range check
  87. A tool that helps programmers plan a program's logic by writing plain English statements.
  88. You use the NOT operator, which is written as the exclamation point ( ! ), to negate the result of any Boolean expression.
    NOT operator
  89. Contains an if structure within another if structure.
    nested if statement
  90. The logical OR operator uses two Boolean expressions as operands and evaluates to true if either operand is true. The OR operator is written as two pipes ( || ).
    logical OR operator
  91. The logical AND operator uses two Boolean expressions as operands and evaluates to true if both operands are true. The AND operator is written as two ampersands ( && ).
    logical AND operator
  92. In Java, the simplest statement you can use to make a decision is the if statement; you use it to write a single-alternative decision.
    if statement
  93. In Java, the if...else statement provides the mechanism to perform one action when a Boolean expression evaluates as true and to perform a different action when a Boolean expression evaluates as false.
    if...else statement
  94. The if clause of an if...else statement is the part that executes when the evaluated Boolean expression is true.
    if clause
  95. A tool that helps programmers plan a program's logic by writing the steps in diagram form, as a series of shapes connected by arrows.
  96. Compares values and returns true if they are equal.
    Equivalency operator (==)
  97. Contains only a semicolon.
    Empty statement
  98. A format used in nested if statements in which each instance of else and its subsequent if are placed on the same line.
    else...if clause
  99. The else clause of an if...else statement is the part that executes when the evaluated Boolean expression is false.
    else clause
  100. A decision structure that takes one of two possible courses of action.
    Dual-alternative if
  101. A logical structure that involves choosing between alternative courses of action based on some value within a program.
    Decision structure
  102. Requires three expressions separated with a question mark and a colon and is used as an abbreviated version of the if...else structure.
    conditional operator
  103. True or false values are Boolean values; every computer decision results in a Boolean value.
    Boolean values
  104. An asterisk - a symbol used to indicate that it can be replaced by any set of characters. In a Java import statement, you use a wildcard symbol to represent all the classes in a package.
    Wildcard symbol
  105. The containing class in nested classes.
    Top-level class
  106. A reference to an object that is passed to any object's nonstatic class method.
    this Reference
  107. A type of nested class that has access to all static methods of its to-level class.
    static member class
  108. The action that occurs when a local variable hides a variable with the same name that is further away in scope.
  109. An object's memory address.
  110. To attempt to declare it twice - an illegal action.
    Redeclare a variable
  111. A library of classes.
  112. A variable overrides another with the same name when it takes precedence over the other variable.
  113. Involves using one term to indicate diverse meanings, or writing multiple methods with the same name but with different arguments.
  114. Nested classes that require an instance.
    Nonstatic member classes or inner classes
  115. Classes contained in other classes.
    Nested classes
  116. A folder that provides a convenient grouping for classes.
    Library of classes
  117. The java.lang package is implicitly imported into every java program.
  118. Describes the relationship between classes when an object of one class is a data field within another class.
  119. Static variables that are shared by every instantiation of a class.
    Class variables
  120. The code between a pair of curly braces.
  121. Nested, local classes that have no identifier.
    Anonymous classes
  122. An ambiguous situation is one in which the compiler cannot determine which method to use.
  123. Unreachable statements are those that cannot be executed because the logical path can never encounter them; an unreachable statement causes a compiler error.
    Unreachable statements
  124. A method that contains no statements; programmers create stubs as temporary placeholders during the program development process.
  125. A method's signature is the combination of the method name and the number, types, and order of arguments.
    Signature (method)
  126. Indicates the type of data that, upon completion of the method, is sent back to its calling method.
    Return type
  127. Ends a method and frequently sends a value from a called method back to the calling method.
    Return statement
  128. To return a value is to send the value from a called method back to the calling method.
    Return a value
  129. The name for a memory address where the object is held.
    Reference to an object
  130. Assigning private access to a field means that no other classes can access the field's values, and only methods of the same class are allowed to set, get, or otherwise use private variables.
    Private access
  131. A unique identifier for data within a database.
    Primary key
  132. The data items received by a method.
  133. Allocates the memory needed to hold an object.
    new operator
  134. Mutator methods set values.
    Mutator methods
  135. It's return type.
    Method's type
  136. The first line of the method and contains information about how other methods can interact with it.
    Method header
  137. The set of statements between curly braces that follow the header and that carry out the method's actions.
    Method body
  138. A program module that contains a series of statements that carry out a task.
  139. Known only within the boundaries of a method.
    Local variable
  140. When you invoke or call a method, you execute it.
    Invoke or Call
  141. The interface to a method includes the method's return type, name, and arguments. It is the part that a client sees and uses.
  142. An instantiation of a class is an object; In other words, it is one tangible example of a class.
  143. The instance variables of a class are its data components.
    Instance variables
  144. Nonstatic methods, those methods used with object instantiations, are called instance methods.
    Instance methods
  145. The object-oriented programming principle used when creating private access for data fields; a class's private data can be changed or manipulated only by a class's own methods and not by methods that belong to other classes.
    Information hiding
  146. A principle of object-oriented programming that describes the encapsulation of method details within a class.
    Implementation hiding
  147. Describes the actions that execute within a method - the method body.
  148. One that requires no parameters; if you do not write one, a default constructor is created for a class automatically by the Java compiler.
    Default constructor
  149. Another name for a method header.
  150. A set of statements that are logically unreachable.
    Dead code
  151. Data variables declared in a class outside of any method.
    Data fields
  152. A method that establishes an object.
  153. A method calls another.
    Client method
  154. The calling method makes a method call that invokes the called method.
    Calling method
  155. Data items sent to methods in a method call.
  156. The arguments in a method call.
    Actual parameters
  157. Sometimes used as another term for access specifier.
    Access modifier
  158. A statement that reserves a named memory location.
    Variable declaration
  159. A built-in Java class that provides you with the means for storing and manipulating character strings.
  160. The short data type holds small integers, from -32,768 to 32,767.
  161. The scope of a data item is the area in which it is visible to a program and in which you can refer to it using its simple identifier.
  162. The remainder operator is the percent sign; when it is used with two integers, the result is an integer with the value of the remainder after division takes place.
    Remainder operator
  163. A simple data type. Java's primitive types are byte, short, int, long, float, double, char, and boolean.
    Primitive type
  164. To break into component parts.
  165. An empty String created by typing a set of quotes with nothing between them.
    Null String
  166. Sometimes abbreviated as mod, it is an alternate name for the remainder operator.
    Modulus operator
  167. The long data type holds very large integers from -9,233,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807.
  168. A value that is taken literally at each use.
    Literal constant
  169. An assignment made when you declare a variable.
  170. An item's data type describes the type of data that can be stored there, how much memory the item occupies, and what types of operations can be performed on the data.
    Data type
  171. The char data type is used to hold any single character.
  172. A style in which an identifier begins with a lowercase letter and subsequent words within the identifier are capitalized.
    Camel casing
  173. The byte data type holds very small integers, from -128 to 127.
  174. a programming error that occurs when you introduce typing errors or use the programming language incorrectly
    syntax error
  175. the rules of a language
  176. a keyword that means that a method is accessible and usable even though no objects of the class exist
  177. an error that occurs when a program compiles successfully but does not execute
    run-time error
  178. the attributes of a class
  179. sending arguments to a method
    passing arguments
  180. a program that creates classes, creates objects from those classes, and creates applications that use those objects--objects can be envisioned as concrete objects in the real world that you manipulate to achieve the desired effect
    object-oriented program
  181. a self-contained block of program code, similar to a procedure
  182. a circuitry-level language that represents a series of on and off switches; another term for machine language
    machine code
  183. a language written to correspond closely to a computer processor's circuitry
    low-level programming language
  184. an error that occurs when a program compiles successfully but produces an error during execution
    logic error
  185. comments that start with // and continue to the end of the current line
    line comments
  186. a hypothetical (software-based) computer on which Java runs
    Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
  187. a program that checks bytecode and communicates with the operating system, executing the bytecode instructions line by line within the Java Virtual Machine
    Java interpreter
  188. block comments that generate documentation; Javadoc comments begin with /* and end with /
    Javadoc comments
  189. a program that translates language statements into machine code; it translates one statement at a time, allowing a program to execute partially
  190. a statement that accesses a built-in Java class that is contained in a package
    import statement