Card Set Information
What are 5 common signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure?
3) Poor feeding
What are the 5 P's of compartment syndrome?
Which of the 5 P's of compartment syndrome is NOT a late finding?
Pain - the rest are all LATE findings
What is the test of choice for diagnosis of compartment syndrome?
Measurement of muscle compartment pressures
What is the MOST common cause of rectal prolapse in children?
Chronic functional constipation
What are 5 causes of rectal prolapse in children?
1) Functional constipation (30%)
2) Cystic fibrosis (10%)
3) Rectal polyps
4) Repaired anorectal malformation
5) Constipation secondary to myelomeningocele
What is the mode of inheritance of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
How do you estimate general population risk?
2 x square root of disease incidence
When someone tells you that a disease is rare, what is a good estimate of the incidence?
1 in 10,000 to 1 in 50,000
Copious, purulent penile discharge in a sexually active male indicates what type of urethritis?
What are 7 examples of nongonococcal urethritis?
1) Chlamydia trachomatis
2) Ureaplasma urealyticum
3) Mycoplasma genitalium
4) Trichomonas vaginalis
5) Herpes simplez virus
7) Enteric bacteria
In a pre-pubertal boy, what are the effects of exogenous androgen exposure, virilizing adrenal tumor, or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia? (3)
1) Pubic hair growth
2) Penile enlargement
3) Growth spurt (with bone age advancement)
*** Testes remain < 4ml
What are possible causes of isolated premature thelarche?
1) Exogenous estrogen
2) Estrogen-secreting tumor
3) Early activation of HPA
At what age do children have enough refined finger coordination to button and unbutton clothing?
36 months (or 3 years)
At what age do most kids achieve day-time continence?
36 months (or 3 years)
For infants born to HIV-positive mothers, empiric antiretroviral therapy should be started within what time frame?
What is the test of choice to confirm HIV infection in an infant with positive antibodies to HIV on serology testing?
HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction
Why is HIV serology not a good test in an infant younger than 18 months?
Because positive results can be attributed to passive transfer of maternal antibodies
What are 3 classic lab findings in Fanconi SYNDROME?
3) Metabolic acidosis
What are 3 classic symptoms in Fanconi SYNDROME?
1) Polydipsia/polyuria (with subsequent dehydration)
2) Failure to thrive
What causes the photophobia in kids with Fanconi SYNDROME?
Cystine crystal accumulation in the cornea
What diagnostic exam tool do you use in a kid suspected of having Fanconi SYNDROME? (not a lab!)
Slitlamp ophthalmic exam
What are 2 electrolyte abnormalities in kids with cystic fibrosis?
1) Severe hypochloremia
2) Metabolic alkalosis
What are 3 electrolyte abnormalities in kids with hyperparathyroidism?
3) Slightly low bicarb
What are 4 electrolyte abnormalities in kids with salt-wasting nephropathy (Bartter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome)?
4) Metabolic alkalosis
When do skin symptoms of serum sickness typically manifest?
1-2 weeks after starting offending agent (i.e. penicillin)
What are symptoms of serum sickness?
5) Urticarial plaques
Besides supportive therapy, what is the treatment for serum sickness? (2)
Which hypersensitivity classification is serum sickness?
Type III hypersensitivity: immune complex reaction
What are the 2 most common viral etiologies of erythema multiforme?
2) Mycoplasma sp.
What are 6 common drug etiologies of erythema multiforme?
Zinc absorption is impaired when given at the same time as what food product?
Which 2 elements Interfere with intestinal copper absorption?
What is the etiology of Menkes syndrome?
Mutation of copper ATPases that impairs copper absorption and transport
What are 3 clinical features of Menkes syndrome?
1) Developmental delay
3) "Steely hair"
What are 3 classic clinical features of an infant with copper deficiency?
1) Hypochromic normocytic anemia
Where is zinc absorbed?
Where is copper absorbed?
What is the etiology of Wilson disease?
Copper accumulation caused by mutation in hepatic copper transport; copper cannot be excreted from liver
What are 4 classic clinical features of zinc deficiency in kids?
2) Skin lesions
3) Altered taste
4) Behavioral abnormalities
What is the etiology of acrodermatitis enteropathica?
Congenital defect in zinc transport
How does acrodermatitis enteropathica present?
1) Severe oral and perianal rash
2) Intractable chronic diarrhea
3) Growth failure
Beside low serum zinc level (duh), what is an expected lab value associated with zinc deficiency? (1)
Decreased alkaline phosphatase
How does cool mist work for the treatment of croup?
Cool mist thins and moistens airway secretions to improve clearance
When is nebulized racemic epinephrine indicated?
Moderate-to-severe croup (with respiratory distress or inspiratory stridor)
When counseling teens about illicit activity, what are 2 nonhelpful tips?
1) Lecturing about long-term sequelae (i.e. cancer)
2) Discussing ilegality of such activity
The parents of a delayed kid think she's deteriorating. What are 3 things you can verify to rule out degenerative CNS disorder?
1) No decline in IQ (school evaluation)
2) No loss in acquired skills
3) Stable neuro exam
What 3 electrolyte abnormalities are associated with use of furosemide?
3) Metabolic alkalosis
For patients with history of "penicillin allergy," which cephalosporin is less likely to cause reaction?
2nd or 3rd generation cephalosporins (less allergenic than 1st gen)
Toxic appearance, high fever, brassy cough, inspiratory stridor, "ragged" tracheal air column on neck radiograph - diagnosis?