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2015-11-02 17:42:24

Cryptography Domain 1
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  1. cryptology
    science of cryptography and cryptoanalysis
  2. cryptography
    • process of converting readable text into unreadable series of symbols and characters
    • hiding information
  3. cyrptoanalysis
    study and practice of finding weaknesses in ciphers
  4. streaming cipher
    RC4 and commonly used with wireless
  5. CIA Triad
  6. AAA Triad
    • Authentication
    • Authorization
    • Accounting
  7. confidentiality
    • prevents unauthorized disclosure of information
    • symmetric and asymmetric encryption
  8. integrity
    • verifying information, assurance message wasn't modified (no altering during storage of message or transmission)
    • ie. hashing, digital certificates, digital signatures
  9. Availability
    • ensuring resources are available to authorize users in a timely manner
    • ie. redundancy, fail over, RAID, high availability clusters
  10. AAA - Authentication
    • process of verifying that the sender is who they say they are
    • ie. encryption, digital signatures and biometrics (2 factor authentication)
  11. Authorization
    • granting access upon the need to know
    • ie. access control list (ACL), clearance level
  12. Accounting
    • act of collecting information on resource usage
    • ie. logging, auditing, and monitoring
  13. Algorithm
    mathematical character - steps, processes, formulas that are followed to arrive at a result
  14. cipher
    method of encrypting data/text
  15. key
    value used within algorithm
  16. ephemeral key
    temporary key/session key
  17. keyspace
    range of possible values
  18. Perfect Forward Secrecy
    key stolen, can now crack later (can only use key for the message that particular part of the message) There is only one compromised key, and the only data that can be cracked is specific to that key that is compromised. whole website, or all data is not stolen, only that part of the message from the key
  19. key stretching
    way to make short cryptographic keys longer so that it is immune from attack
  20. Salt/salting
    randomizing value is calculated into the hashing process
  21. Stenography
    • art of science of concealing once's message within something else
    • ie. using pictures to convey a hidden message
    • mp3
  22. 4 essential services within cryptography
    • Confidentiality
    • Integrity
    • Authentication
    • Non-repudiation
  23. Wireless Standards
    • WEP-RC4/IV
    • WPA2ENTERPRISE - Radius Server required
  24. HASH
    used to establish and maintain integrity INTEGRITY
  25. Symmetric
    one key, shared by both parties
  26. Asymmetric
    two keys/public and private keys NOTE PRIVATE KEYS: you CANNOT share private keys. Public key can be shared, anyone can have it, I don't care. Private key cannot be shared
    ensures data integrity, creates a checksum
  28. NTLM
    old AUTHENTICATION SERVER/used on old legacy systems, used with Windows NT4.0
  29. Digital Signature Standard/Digital Signature Algorithm
    • DSS/DSA - ECC or RSA Encryption - SHA Hash
    • validate the source (hash) validate the message (asymmetic)
  30. TPM
    form of key storage - hardware based/motherboard
  31. CA
    issues and signs all root certificates
  32. non-repudiation
    cannot deny it is you
  33. SSH
    deals with remote access/routers
  34. types of crytopgraphy
    • hash - established and maintains integrity
    • symmetric - one key, shared by both parties
    • asymmetric - two keys, one public and one private (Private key is never shared)
  35. Hash
    ensures data integrity, think of it as the receiving device computes a checksum and compares it to the checksum included with the file.
  36. Common Hashing Function
    • MD4
    • MD5
    • SHA SHA-1 digest size: 160bits
    • SHA-2
    • SHA-3
    • RIPEMD
    • RIPEMD-160
    • HAVAL
    • Whirpool
  37. Symmetric Encryption Methods
    stream ciper, block ciper, Exclusive-OR (XOR) Operation, One-Time Pad
  38. Stream Ciper
    known famously for wireless, data encrypted bit by bit, plaintext mixed with keystream controlled by a key, usually implemented in hardware, requires no memeory, data is encrypted on-the-fly
  39. Common Streaming Cipher
    RC4 - WEP
  40. Block Ciper
    general process of turning plain text to ciper, usually inplemented in software, happens all at once
  41. AES
    128block size
  42. Exclusive XOR Operation 0 and 1s
    Binary mathematical operation which comapres two bits to produce an outputvalues the same - result is 0
  43. One--Time Pad
    • unbreakable because it can only be used once, type of encryption which has been proven impossible to crack is used correctly
    • must be at least as long as the message
  44. Initialization Vectors
    • random values used with a secret key to encrypt data and are used with STREAM and BLOCK ciphers
    • WEP - IV
    • TKIP - IV
    • those are the wireless standards
  45. Quantum Cryptography
    Quantum - photons, used by the Navy, almost as secure as one-time pad encryption
  46. NTLM
    old authentication server/used on old legacy systems/Windows NT4
  47. Hash Collision
    collision attach used, two separate inputs that give the same hash
  48. Cyrptographic Attacks
    Birthday attack, brute force (exhasting every combination-we (the good) use mitigation such as three attempts lock out to mitigate brute force), dictionary attack, rainbow tables
  49. Symmetric Cryptography
    • one key, private key that is shared, uses one key to encrpyt and decrypt the information, both parties share the same key
    • high chance of compromise
    • faster transmissions
  50. Symmetric key algorithms DES
    Data encryption standard, easily broken, Lucifer
  51. 3DES
    symetric key algorithm triple data encryption standard
  52. AES
    symmetric key algorithm, advanced encryption standardss, 256bits (qualifies for TS information), created by Rijndael
  53. Blowfish
    blowfish blows, fastest of the symmetric key alogrithm, 64 bit (blows), sometimes replaces DES and IDEA
  54. Twofish
    symmetric key algorithm
  55. CAST
    used with email and PGP (pretty good privacy), symmetric algorithm)
  56. Rivest Ciphers
    • RC2 RC4 RC5 RC6
    • RC4 is the only streaming cipher