eco and evo 5

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xijunzhu
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310813
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eco and evo 5
Updated:
2015-11-02 17:50:12
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ecology
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exam 2
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  1. three major groups of mammals
    • marsupials
    • placental
    • monotremes
  2. monotremes belong to what class and subclass
    • class mammal
    • subclass prototheria
    • examples are platypus, echidna (spiny and long beaked)
  3. marsupialia
    • subclass theria infraclass megatheria
    • possum, kangaroo
    • tazmanian devil, koala
  4. placental mammals
    • class mammal
    • subclass theria
    • infraclass eutheria
    • pangolin, hyrax, armadillos, whales, elephants, bats, rodents)
    • hair follicles attached to nerve endings
  5. platypus development
    • egg laying and milk feeding
    • has venom
    • don't have nipples yet, milk comes out like sweat
  6. Tazmanian devils
    • make terrifying noises, because they don't want to fight each other (have mandibles)
    • strongest bite force of any mammal (from muscles tied to back of head)
  7. two types of hair in placental mammals
    • underhair
    • guard hairs (longer, responsible for diff patterns of color)
    • 1 or 2 molts a year
  8. mammalian integument and glands
    • sebaceous gland (secrete oily wax to lubricate and waterproof the skin)
    • sweat gland
    • scent gland
    • mammary gland
  9. narwhal
    have tooth that look like horn to show off, tusk is jammed packed with nerve endings, may have sensory
  10. skull diversification
    depends on food it is eating
  11. omnivores
    versatile dentition for varied diet
  12. piscivores and plankton feeders (dolphins)
    numerous similar teeth in both jaws for fish capture
  13. derived insectivores (2-toed anteater)
    complete loss of teeth, tongue is the principle feeding tool
  14. frugivores
    robust teeth for crushing hard fruit
  15. carnivores
    huge canines, molars, incisors and premolars for slicing meet
  16. gnawing (beaver)
    • premolars and molars (enamel on anterior surfaces of incisors to wear off more slowly)
    • large incisors and cheek teeth grow throughout life
  17. grazing and browsing (deer)
    • incisors 
    • diastema (gap between teeth)
    • premolars and molars (high cheek teeth with ridge shaped cusps for grinding abrasive plants)
  18. teeth
    • milk teeth lose soon
    • permanent ones as well
    • rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits) continuously grow b/c they chew on nuts very hard
  19. digestive tract
    • carnivores (short intestine and colon and small cecum (junction of small and large intestines)
    • insectivores (short intestine and no cecum)
    • herbivores (long small and large intestines)
  20. ruminant vs. non-ruminant herbivores
    • ruminant: four chambered stomach with large rumen (regurgitate food, ingest cellulose)
    • non-ruminant: simple stomach, large cecum
    • we just have a simple intestine
  21. sonar
    marine mammals and bats, produce echo, attack insects
  22. reproduction of prototherians
    • monotremes
    • oviparous (eggs hatched inside, born alive without placenta)
    • hatchlings mature in pouch and suckle from mammary gland
  23. reproduction modes of metatherians
    • marsupials
    • viviparous (all mammals except monotremes, develop within the body instead of hatching from eggs)
    • very immature young mature in pouch from mammary gland
  24. eutherian reproduction mode
    • vivaparous
    • precocial (young are relatively mature) and altricial young (hairless, no eyes, mom needs to care)
    • suckle young
  25. estrous cycle
    • time of ovulation following a peak in estrogen production/estrus
    • monestrous (1 ovulation per year)
    • polyestrous (multiple ovulation periods per year)
  26. menstrual cycle
    • estrus followed by menstruation
    • shedding of uterine lining
    • only in humans, apes and old world monkeys
  27. what are the gestational and lactational differences between marsupials and mammals?
    • marsupial has longer lactation (babies need more care)
    • placental mammals have longer gestation, with primates being an exception
  28. gestation periods of large mammals
    • longer gestations
    • precocial newborns
    • (herbivores, need to flee from predators)
  29. small insectivores, rodents and carnivores
    • shorter gestations
    • altricial newborns (hairless, sightless)
  30. prosimian primates
    • more ancestral primates
    • not a real classification
  31. hominidae
    smarter not related to brain size
  32. characteristics of fungi
    • unicelluar
    • filamentuous 
    • mycelium
    • sclerotium
    • multicellular
  33. hypha or hyphae
    singular and plural
  34. heterotrophy
    • obtains food from organic sources
    • saprophytes or saprobes (feed on dead tissues or organic waste-decomposers)
    • symbionts
    • parasites (feeding on living tissue of a host)
  35. pathogens
    parasites that cause disease
  36. heterotrophic by absorption
    • fungi get carbon from organic sources
    • hyphal tips release enzymes
    • enzymes break down substrate
    • products diffuse back into hyphae
  37. hyphae
    • tubular 
    • hard wall of chitin
    • crosswalks may form compartments
    • multinucleate
    • grow at tips (tip of the wall is plastic and stretches)
  38. mycelium
    • extensive feeding web os hyphae
    • mycelia are the ecologically active bodies of fungi
  39. types of hypha
    • septate (small segments)
    • one big hypha with multiple nuclei 
    • hype that enters into plant cell or space between cells
  40. mycorrhizae
    • means fungus roots
    • mutualism between fungus and plant (plant provides carbs for fungus), fungus provides nutrient and water uptake for plant)
  41. several kinds of mycorrhizae
    • zygomycota (hyphae invade root cells)
    • ascomycota and basidiomycota (hyphae invade root but don't penetrate cells, goes between cells)
  42. three types of lichens
    • crustose lichens (form flat crusty plates)
    • foliose lichens (leafy in appearance)
    • fruticose lichens (lots of branches)
  43. lichens
    symbiont relationship with alga or cyanobacterium (provides food for fungus while fungus provides structure)
  44. lichens can be useful for what
    • indicate air quality depending on which species are present
    • thalli (body of mushrooms) act like sponges (absorb nutrients and elements)
  45. spores purpose
    • allows fungus to move to new food source
    • resistant stage (allows fungus to survive periods of adversity)
    • means introducing new genetic combo into population
  46. spores are formed where?
    • directly on hyphae
    • inside sporangia (organ that contains spores)
    • fruiting bodies
  47. where is the main part of fungus
    • hidden underground (grows through its food source)
    • indeterminate clonal growth
    • vegetative phase of fungus is usually sedentary, but spore is motile
  48. characteristics of fungus
    • cell wall of chitin and sometimes cellulose
    • food storage in form of lipids and glycogen
    • eukaryotes (true nucleus and other organelles)
    • require water and oxygen
    • 1.5 million species (100,000 described)
  49. life cycle of fungus asexual
    • mycelium (n)
    • spore producing structure (n)
    • spore (n)
    • germination
  50. sexual reproduction of fungus
    • mycelium (n)
    • plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm)
    • dikaryotic (n+n)
    • karyogamy (fusion of nuclei)
    • diploid (2n)
    • meiosis
    • spore producing (n)
    • spores (n)
    • germinate
  51. germination
    growth of hyphae from spores
  52. chytridiomycota
    • water molds
    • simple fungi
    • produce motile spores (zoospores)
    • mostly parasites and sap robes in marine habitats
  53. zygomycota
    • bread molds/strawberries
    • grow rapidly
    • decomposers, pathogens, and some mycorrhizal with plants
  54. basidiomycota (club fungi)
    • mushrooms and rusts (plant parasite/disease)
    • enzymes decompose wood, leaves, and other organic material
    • long lived dikaryotic mycelia
    • decomposers, pathogens, and some mycorrihizal with plants
  55. ascomycota (sac fungi)
    • yeast, cup fungi, morels, truffles
    • important plant parasites and sap robes (antibiotics)
    • decomposers, pathogens, found in lichens
    • related more to basidiomycota
  56. mycena bioluminescence
    luciferin
  57. yeasts
    • single celled fungi
    • adapted to liquids (moist animal tissues, water films, plant saps)
  58. molds
    • rapidly growing
    • asexual spores
    • many human importances (food spoilage, food products, antibiotics)
  59. beneficial effects of fungi
    • decomposition (nutrient and carbon recycling)
    • biosynthetic factories (produce drugs, antibiotics, alcohol, acids, food)
    • model organisms for biochemical and genetic studies
  60. harmful effects of fungi
    • destruction of food, lumber, paper, and cloth
    • animal and human diseases/allergies
    • toxins produced by poisonous mushrooms and in food
    • plant diseases

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