Pathophysiology Exam 3 Part 1

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Pathophysiology Exam 3 Part 1
2015-11-03 04:20:56

Disease of the Nervous System
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  1. The legal definition of brain death is
    death of the cerebellum and brain stem
  2. Identify the three neural symptoms basic to cognitive functions?
    • attention
    • memory
    • language
    • effective domain
    • emotional domain
  3. What is another term for convulsions
  4. Term for life threatening uninterrupted seizure
    status epilepticus
  5. What is the cause of death from status epilepticus
    suffocation because diaphragm
  6. What is a tonic clonic seizure
    convulsion jerky contract relax movements associated with some seizures
  7. What is the muscle activity in a tonic clonic seizure
    they contract and relax
  8. A patient tells you he is going to have a seizure he is experiencing a premonition or an?
  9. What is the primary assessment finding in a patient who has dementia
    Memory loss (recent&remote)
  10. How do we make a definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's
  11. Parkinson's disease is cause by a reduction in which neurotransmitter
  12. What are the classical presentations of parkinson
    Resting tremor
  13. Resting tremor
    tremor when you are at rest
  14. Intentional tremor
    when you are reaching for something and you are shaking
  15. Huntingtons disease is caused by which neurotransmitter
    dopamine excess
  16. Where does bleeding occur in subdural hematoma
    between dura and the brain
  17. What time of blood vessel is damaged in an epidural hematoma
  18. What is a classic sign of a concussion
    loss of consciousness
  19. Why are we concerned if the patient has rhinorrhea
    leaking spinal fluid leaving them at risk for infection
  20. poikilothermia
    widely fluctuating change in temperature
  21. Risk factors for stroke(brain attacks)
    • diabetes
    • heart disease
    • smoking
    • hypertension
    • age
    • gender
  22. number 1 cause of a cerebral thrombus
    atherosclerosis plaque
  23. Symptoms of TIA
    same as stroke only last less than 24 hours
  24. What is the underlying pathophysiology of Multiple sclerosis
    autoimmune disease attacking the myelin on a nerve cell
  25. Over 50% of brain tumors in adults are
    Striated or star shaped called astrosarcomas
  26. What is a seizure?
    sudden episode of abnormal uncontrolled electrical discharges from a group of neurons in cerebral cortex
  27. What is Epilepsy
    a condition of recurrent seizures with no underlying correctable cause
  28. What is Dementia
    progressive failure of cerebral functions that is not caused by an impaired level of consciousness
  29. Signs of dementia
    losses in orientation memory language judgment decision making
  30. Alzheimers Disease
    progressive and fatal brain disease that destroys brain cells often affecting temporal and frontal lobes most
  31. 3 forms of Alzheimers Disease
    • early onset
    • late onset
    • early onset familial
  32. Hyperkinesia
    excessive movement
  33. Chorea
    jerking dance like movement start at facial grimace then neck and body
  34. Huntingtons Disease
    • Genetic defect
    • autosomal dominant
    • severe degeneration of basal ganglia
  35. Signs and Symptoms of Parkinsons
    • lack of facial expression
    • rigidity
    • old man stance
  36. Hypoxia
    • inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue
    • adequate perfusion of tissue by blood
  37. Ischemia
    low blood flow O2 and glucose delivery impaired
  38. Cerebral Edema
    an increase in tissue volume secondary to abnormal fluid accumulation
  39. Vasogenic Edema
    • vasodilation in the brain
    • blood brain barrier is disrupted
  40. Cytotoxic edem
    swelling of brain cells cause by an increase in fluid inside the cell electrolyte imbalances is a cause
  41. Brain Herniation means
    shift out of skull not survivable will result in brain damage
  42. Cushings Triad
    • a late sign of increased intracranial pressure
    • hypertension with widened pulse pressure
    • reflex bradycardia decrease HR
    • irregular breathing
  43. Coup injury
    injury directly below the point of impact
  44. Contrecoup injury
    injury at and opposite the site of impact
  45. Compound fracture
    open brain trauma exposed to air with room for some expansion and risk of infection
  46. Epidural Hematoma
    • arterial bleed 85% of the time
    • bleeding occurs between the inner surface of the skull and dura matter
    • forms fast
  47. Subdural Hematoma
    • generally forms slower
    • bleeding occurs between dura and arachnoid membrane
  48. Linear Fracture
    • break in continuity of cranial bone resembling think line
    • safest fracture will heal without consequence
  49. Depressed skull fracture
    break in cranial bone where bone fragments are embedded into brain tissue
  50. Compound skull fracture
    • depressed skull fracture and scalp laceration
    • can be source of aggressive infection
  51. Basilar Skull Fracture
    • crack along the base of the skull in between eyes
    • battle signs bruise behind ear
    • raccoon eyes
    • blood in ears or behind ear drum
  52. rhinorrhea
    runny nose dripping cerebral spinal fluid
  53. Otorrhea
    blood and cerebral spinal fluid in ear
  54. Stroke FAST
    • Facial changes
    • Arm weakness
    • Speech inability to find words or slurred
    • Time to go to doctor
  55. Ischemic Stroke
    reduced blood supply with limited perfusion cased by thrombus
  56. Thrombus
    blood clot thats attached
  57. Emblous
    floating in blood moving clot
  58. Atrial fibrilation
    primary cause of blood clots
  59. Lacunar Stroke
    • cause membranes in capillary to thicken
    • is about scaring
  60. Hemorrhagic stroke
    spontaneous bleeding or rupture
  61. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    • bleeding into the subarachnoid space caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm
    • high mortality rate
  62. Circle of willis common place to develop
  63. Encephalitis
    • generalized infection of the brain or spinal cord usually caused by a virus
    • primary diagnosed by symptoms
    • neck rigidity
  64. Meningitis
    • inflammation of the pia matter arachnoid and CSF filled space
    • most commonly associated with bacterial infection
    • diagnosed by spinal tap that has pus white cells and lots of banned cell(baby neutrophils)
  65. Brain Abscess
    • localized collection of pus in brain tissue formed by bacteria
    • difficult to treat because most drugs won't go past blood-brain barrier
  66. Brain Tumor
    • can develop anywhere in brain
    • may be benign or malignant although rarely benign
    • rarely metastasize except in CNS because blood-brain barrier
    • high overall mortality rate
  67. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS
    neruodegenerative disorder that diffusely involves lower and upper motor neuron death
  68. Signs and symptoms of ALS
    weakness beginning in arms and legs and progressing to muscle atrophy, spasticity and loss of manual dexterity and gait
  69. Brudzinski Sign
    urge to curl up
  70. Myasthenia Gravis
    • an acquired chronic autoimmune disease mediated by antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction
    • s/s severe muscle weakness quadraplegia, respiratory insufficiency and extreme difficulty in swallowing