Anthropology Exam 2

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  1. State
    Class societies, often rigidly stratified into social levels
  2. Social Stratification
    Pattern of social integration in which individuals are placed into a hierarchy of social levels
  3. Monumental Works
    Large scale, communal construction projects characteristic of civilization
  4. Specialization of Labor
    Cultural patter in which some individuals can focus all of their labor on some specialty (pot making)
  5. Ziggurat
    Large, pyramidlike platform made primarily of mud-brick in Mesopotamia (Great Ziggurat of Ur)
  6. Cuneiform
    Early form of written record in Mesopotamia, involving impression of standardized symbols on wet clay
  7. Hieroglyphs
    Writing system in which pictorial symbols are used to convey a particular sound, object or idea
  8. Linear A
    An undeciphered writing system used primarily in palace & religious writings in Minoan civilization
  9. Mastaba
    Mud-brick structures built over the tombs of a developing elite in Egypt before the Pharaos
  10. Pyramid of Djoser (3)
    • Saggara neuropolis, Egypt
    • 27th century for Pharaoh Djoser by Imhotep
    • Central feature of vast mortuary complex
  11. 3 Pyramids of Sneferu (3)
    • "True" pyramid structure
    • Bent pyramid, Red pyramid, & Medum pyramid
    • Paved the way for the Pyramids of Giza
  12. 3 Pyramids of Giza (2)
    • Built by Sneferu and his son after the 3 pyramids of Sneferu
    • Khufu Pyramid, Khafre Pyramid (sphinx), & Menkaura Pyramid
  13. Deffufa
    Monumental mud-brick towers built by the inhabitants of the ancient Nubian civilization of Kerma located south of the third cataract of the Nile
  14. Dagga
    A high-quality, clay based building material used to build houses in Southern Africa
  15. Knossos
    Palace in Crete discovered by Sir Arthur Evans, believed to have been the Palace of King Minos and the Minotar
  16. Gournia
    Well developed "village" in Crete that included: houses, a palace, a cemetery, and streets
  17. Akrotiri
    Minoan city that was destroyed by a cataclysmic volcanic eruption
  18. Pithos (pithoi)
    Greek storage container used for bulk storage (fluid and grain)
  19. City-state
    Political entity characteristic of some early civilizations, especially Mesopotamia
  20. Rosetta Stone
    Discovered in 1799, bore the same message in three scripts- Greek and demotic and hieroglyphs (2 versions of ancient Egypt written language)
  21. Neolithic (2)
    • The "new stone age"
    • Defined on basis of the appearance of ground stone as opposed to chipped stone tools
  22. Mesolithic
    Culture period of many regional adaptations and an explosion of local cultural diversity
  23. Sedentism
    Pattern of settlement in which a community of people tends to remain in one place over the course of a year or years
  24. Artificial Selection
    Process used in domestication and refinement of plants and animals whereby human beings select which members of a species will live and produce offspring
  25. Complex Foraging
    A system of hunting animals and gathering wild plants in which subsistence is focused on a few, highly productive resources
  26. Teosinte
    Wild ancestor of domesticated maize that grows wild throughout American tropics
  27. Minoan Palace (4)
    • Knossos
    • Phaistos
    • Malia
    • Zakros
  28. Younger Dyras 
    Stadial in Europe that may have been severe enough to have caused the temporary abandonment by humans of much of northwest Europe
  29. Gobekli Tepe
    Series of circular and oval-shaped structures set on top of the hill for religious purposes in modern day Turkey
  30. Monolithic
    Formed a single large block of stone
  31. Catalhoyuk (2)
    • Turkey
    • Featured bulls, painting of hunting, and houses that were connected through the roofs of each building
  32. Sarsen
    Thirty upright stones at Stonehenge
  33. Regal-Ritual Centers
    Term used by David Webster to describe Mayan population centers that were home to Mayan Nobility/ religious
  34. Cylinder Seals
    Mesopotamian system of impressing symbolic notation onto wet clay by using a marked cylinder
  35. Trilithon
    Set of three stones, two upright and one lintel at stonehenge
  36. Megaliths
    Large stone slabs that were built into above ground burial chambers
  37. Poverty Point
    Ceremonial center in Louisiana that was a widespread culture in American South where hunting-gathering, pottery making and religion were shared
  38. Hang-t'u
    Chinese term for stamped/pounded and compacted earth used to make sculptures
  39. Coumarin
    Organic chemical compound with a fresh odor
  40. Tholoi
    New architectural form seen at Halafian sites that were used as communal storage facilities as well as burial chambers for socioeconomically important individuals
  41. Scapulimancy
    Process of divining the future in which the scapulae of animals are burned and the pattern of burning and breakage is "read" by a diviner
  42. Qanats
    Underground channel or tunnel constructed to lead water from the interior of a hill to a village below.
  43. Chiefdom
    Level of socio-political integration more complex than the tribe but less so than the state
  44. Chavin
    Distinctive religious art style in western South America that influenced broad empires
  45. Conspicuous Consumption
    Lavish or wasteful consumption thought to enhance social prestige
  46. Affluent Foraging
    Though society is fueled by agriculture, the wild food resources in some areas are so rich, complexity may develop without the development of food production
  47. Citadel
    Core fortified area of a city or town that may be a castle, fortress or fortified center
  48. Ness of Brogdar
    Temple complex that is the epicenter of a vast ritualistic complex
  49. Horns of Concecration
    Practical device and abstract symbol of the sun that is located in a Minoan cemetery
  50. Larnax
    Type of small closed coffin, box or "ash-chest" often used as a container for human remains in ancient Macedonia
  51. Paleolithic
    "Old stone age" lasting about 2.5 million years, when primitive stone implements were used.
  52. Brodger, Orkney
    One of the stone circles in the "heart of orkney"
  53. Carnac, France
    Megalithic site of three primary clusters of nearly 3000 stones set in neatly parallel rows
  54. Fluted points
    Projectile points made by Paleoindians that are found in association with bones of bison
  55. Pschent
    Double crown worn by ancient Egyptian kings, symbolic of dominion over Upper and Lower Egypt
  56. Flail and Crook
    Two of the most prominent items in the royal regalia of ancient Egypt
  57. Narmer Palette
    Significant archaeological find that contains some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found
  58. Lapita Pottery
    Pottery style known from the inhabited Pacific Islands
  59. Clovis point
    Fluted point type stone blades exhibiting a channel on both faces to aid in hafting the stone point onto a wooden shaft
  60. Debitage
    Small, unusable waste flakes produced during the process of making stone tools
  61. Microblades
    Very small stone blade with a very sharp cutting edge
  62. Denali Complex
    Lithic technology seen in the Arctic consisting of wedge-shaped cores, microblades, etc.
  63. Nenana Complex
    Oldest stone-tool complex in Alaska, includes bifacially flaked, un-fluted spear points
Card Set:
Anthropology Exam 2
2015-11-03 06:51:57
Anthropology exam
Anthropology Exam
Terms, people and concepts that were covered in chapters 7-10
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